... launch of Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month at the Pentagon, March 31, 2015. U.S. Army National Guard photo by Sgt. 1st Class Jim Greenhill....http://www.defense.gov/News/Special-Reports/Sexual-Assault-Awareness-and-Prevention
National Guard of the United States
|National Guard of the United States|
|Active||English colonial government militias: from December 13, 1636|
As "National Guard": from 1824 in New York, from 1903 nationwide
Dual state-federal reserve forces: from 1933
|Country||United States of America|
|Allegiance||Federal (10 U.S.C. § E)|
State/Territory (32 U.S.C.)
|Branch|| United States Army|
United States Air Force
|Role||State militia, reserve forces|
|Part of||National Guard Bureau|
|Garrison/HQ||All 50 U.S. states, as well as organized U.S. territories, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia|
|Nickname(s)||"Air Guard", "Army Guard"|
|Motto(s)||"Always Ready, Always There"|
|Chief of the National Guard||General Frank J. Grass|
|Seal of theArmy National Guard|
|Seal of theAir National Guard|
National Guard Bureau
Agricultural Development Teams
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State defense forces
Duties and administrative organization
National Guard active duty character
State and territory duty
- The Governor can activate National Guard personnel to "State Active Duty" in response to natural or man-made disasters or Homeland Defense missions. State Active Duty is based on State statute and policy as well as State funds. Soldiers and Airmen remain under the command and control of the Governor. The federal Posse Comitatus Act (PCA) does not apply under state active duty status or Title 32 status.
- Title 32 Full-Time National Guard Duty. (Federally funded, but command and control remains with the State Governor through his Adjutant General.) Title 32 activation can only be done by the President or SECDEF with the approval and consent of the state Governor.
- Voluntary Order to Active Duty.
- Federalized with the Soldier's or Airman's consent and the consent of their Governor.
- Partial Mobilization.
- In time of national emergency declared by the President for any unit or any member for not more than 24 consecutive months.
- Presidential Reserve Call Up.
- When the President determines that it is necessary to augment the active forces for any operational mission for any unit or any member for not more than 270 days.
- Federal Aid for State Governments.
- Whenever an insurrection occurs in any State against its government, the President may, upon the request of its legislature or of its governor call into Federal service such of the militia of the other States. This is a statutory exception to the PCA
- Use of Militia and Armed Forces to Enforce Federal Authority.
- Whenever the President considers that unlawful obstructions, assemblages, or rebellion make it impracticable to enforce the laws of the United States in any State or Territory, he may call into Federal service such of the militia of any State. This is another statutory exception to the PCA
- Interference with State and Federal law.
- The President, by using the militia or the armed forces, or both, or by any other means, shall take such measures as he considers necessary to suppress, in a State, any insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful combination, or conspiracy.
- Air and Army National Guard.
- Air and Army National Guard can specifically be called into Federal service in case of invasion, rebellion, or inability to execute Federal law with active forces.
American Revolutionary War
Industrialization and labor unrest
The National Guard and the US Army Reserve
- The Militia Act of 1792
- Providing for the authority of the President to call out the Militia, and providing federal standards for the organization of the Militia.
- For the 111 years that the Militia Act of 1792 remained in effect, it defined the position of the militia in relation to the federal government. The War of 1812 tested this uniquely American defense establishment. To fight the War of 1812, the republic formed a small regular military and trained it to protect the frontiers and coastlines. Although it performed poorly in the offensive against Canada, the small force of regulars backed by a well-armed militia, accomplished its defensive mission well. Generals like Andrew Jackson proved that, just as they had in the Revolution, regulars and militia could be effective when employed as a team.
- The Insurrection Act
- The Militia Act of 1862
- Providing for the service of persons of African descent in the Militia, and the emancipation of slaves owned by Confederates.
- Title 18, U.S. Code, Section 1385: The Posse Comitatus Act of June 18, 1878
- Reaction in Congress against the Reconstruction-era suspensions of Southern states' rights to organize militias led to the passage of the Posse Comitatus Act, restricting any person's use of the U.S. Army and, as later amended, the U.S. Air Force in domestic law enforcement (use of the Navy and Marine Corps, being uniformed services within the Department of Defense, is similarly restricted by statute). The U.S. Coast Guard, in its peacetime role within the Department of Homeland Security, and the National Guard, when not in Federal Service, are specifically not limited by this act.
- The States revise the military codes – 1881 to 1892
- The Militia Act of 1903
- Established the creation of the National Guard of the United States as the primary organized reserve force for the U.S. armed forces.
- National Defense Act of 1916
- This act abandoned the idea of an expandable Regular Army and firmly established the traditional concept of the citizens' army as the keystone of the United States defense forces. It established the concept of merging the National Guard, the Army Reserve, and the Regular Army into the Army of the United States in time of war. The act further expanded the National Guard's role, and guaranteed the State militias' status as the Army's primary reserve force. The law mandated use of the term "National Guard" for that force, and the President was given authority, in case of war or national emergency, to mobilize the National Guard for the duration of the emergency. The number of yearly drills increased from 24 to 48 and annual training from five to 15 days. Drill pay was authorized for the first time.
- The National Defense Act Amendments of 1920
- This act established that the chief of the Militia Bureau (later the National Guard Bureau) would be a National Guard officer, that National Guard officers would be assigned to the general staff and that the divisions, as used by the Guard in World War I, would be reorganized.
- The National Guard Mobilization Act, 1933
- Made the National Guard a component of the Army.
- The National Defense Act of 1947
- The Total Force Policy, 1973
- Requires all active and reserve military organizations be treated as a single force.
- The Montgomery Amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987
- provides that a governor cannot withhold consent with regard to active duty outside the United States because of any objection to the location, purpose, type, or schedule of such duty. This law was challenged and upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1990 in Perpich v. Department of Defense.
- The John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2007 Pub.L. 109-364
- Federal law was changed in section 1076 so that the Governor of a state is no longer the sole commander in chief of their state's National Guard during emergencieswithin the state. The President of the United States will now be able to take total control of a state's National Guard units without the governor's consent. In a letter to Congress, all 50 governors opposed the increase in power of the President over the National Guard.
- The National Defense Authorization Act 2008 Pub.L. 110-181
- Repeals provisions in section 1076 in Pub.L. 109-364 but still enables the President to call up the National Guard of the United States for active federal military service during Congressionally sanctioned national emergency or war. Places the National Guard Bureau directly under the Department of Defense as a joint activity. Promoted the Chief of the National Guard Bureau from a three-star to a four-star general.
Other notable members
- John R. Bolton, former United States Representative to the United Nations
- Ralph Haben, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives
- Ken Holtzman, two-time major league baseball All Star pitcher
- John Allen Muhammad, spree killer, "Beltway Sniper"
- William Joseph Donovan, founder of the Office of Strategic Services
- Dan Quayle, 44th Vice President of the United States
- Tom Selleck, actor, Magnum, P.I.
- Scott Philip Brown, politician, former United States Senator from Massachusetts, 2010–2012.
- Rick Story, mixed martial artist in the UFC
- Babe Ruth, former Major League Baseball player
- Audie Murphy, highly decorated soldier from WWII, prolific 1950s actor
- Brock Lesnar, professional wrestler and former mixed martial artist
- Joe Foss, Governor of South Dakota, Medal of Honor recipient in World War II
Guardsmen by state
|State/Territory||Army National Guard||Air National Guard||Total|