Friday, February 27, 2015
labore et honore,
furor scribendi, furor loquendi,
ex ungue leonem.
Fuit ilium, fuimus.
Tarde venientibus ossa,
studiis et rebus honestis suus cuique mos,
sit tibi terra levis.
O Tempora, O Mores!
Facilis est descensus averni,
exceptic probat regulam in statu quo.
A capite ad calcem,
ad literam æque animo,
animo et fide modo et forma parva componere magnis,
per mare, per terras.
Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis mens consicia recti,
porbatum est ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum.
Res judicata ultima ratio regum.
cum gano salis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Snorri Sturluson” by Christian Krohg (1890s)
Hvammur, Dalasýsla, Iceland
|Died||23 September 1241 (aged 62)|
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician. He was elected twice as a lawspeaker at the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning ("the fooling of Gylfi"), a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was also the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegiankings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is often taken to be the author of Egil's saga.
As an historian and mythographer, Snorri is remarkable for proposing the hypothesis (in the Prose Edda) that mythological gods begin as human war leaders and kings whose funeral sites develop cults (see euhemerism). As people call upon the dead war leader as they go to battle, or the dead king as they face tribal hardship, they begin to venerate the figure. Eventually, the king or warrior is remembered only as a god. He also proposed that as tribes defeat others, they explain their victory by proposing that their own gods were in battle with the gods of the others.
Snorri Sturluson was born at Hvammur (commonly translated as Hvamm or Hvammr) into the wealthy and powerfulSturlungar family of the Icelandic Commonwealth, in 1179. His parents were Sturla Þórðarson of Hvammur and Guðný Böðvarsdóttir. He had two older brothers, Þórðr Sturluson (the oldest) and Sighvatr Sturluson.
By a quirk of circumstance he was raised from the age of three (or four) by Jón Loftsson, a relative of the Norwegian royal family, in Oddi, Iceland. As Sturla was trying to settle a lawsuit with Father Páll Sölvason, the latter's wife lunged suddenly at him with a knife—intending, she said, to make him like his one-eyed hero Odin—but bystanders deflected the blow to his cheek instead. The resulting settlement would have beggared Páll, but Jón Loftsson intervened in the Althing to mitigate the judgment and, to compensate Sturla, offered to raise and educate Snorri.
Snorri therefore received an education and made connections that he might not otherwise have made. He attended the school of Sæmundr fróði, grandfather of Jón Loftsson, at Oddi, and never returned to his parents' home. His father died in 1183 and his mother as guardian soon wasted Snorri's share of the inheritance. Jón Loftsson died in 1197. The two families then arranged a marriage in 1199 between Snorri and Herdís, the first daughter of Bersi. From her father, Snorri inherited an estate at Borg and a chieftainship. He soon acquired more property and chieftainships.
Snorri and Herdís were together for four years at Borg. They had a few children. The marriage succumbed to Snorri's philandering, and in 1206, he settled in Reykholt as manager of an estate there, but without Herdís. He made significant improvements to the estate, including a hot outdoor bath (Snorralaug). The bath and the buildings have been preserved to some extent. During the initial years at Reykholt he had several more children by different women: Gudrun, Oddny, and Thuridur. 
Snorri quickly became known as a poet, but was also a successful lawyer. In 1215, he became lawspeaker of the Althing, the only public office of the Icelandic commonwealth and a position of high respect. In the summer of 1218, he left the lawspeaker position and sailed to Norway, by royal invitation. There he became well acquainted with the teen-aged King Hákon Hákonarson and his co-regent, Jarl Skúli. He spent the winter as house-guest of the jarl. They showered gifts upon him, including the ship in which he sailed, and he in return wrote poetry about them. In the summer of 1219 he met his Swedish colleague, the lawspeaker Eskil Magnusson, and his wife, Kristina Nilsdotter Blake, in Skara. They were both related to royalty and probably gave Snorri an insight into the history of Sweden.
Snorri was mainly interested in history and culture. The Norwegian regents, however, cultivated Snorri, made him a skutilsvein, a senior title roughly equivalent toknight, and received an oath of loyalty. The king hoped to extend his realm to Iceland, which he could do by a resolution of the Althing, of which Snorri had been a key member.
In 1220, Snorri returned to Iceland and by 1222 was back as lawspeaker of the Althing, which he held this time until 1232. The basis of his election was entirely his fame as a poet. Politically he was the king's spokesman, supporting union with Norway, a platform that acquired him enemies among the chiefs. Personally, in 1224, he took up residence with Hallveig Ormsdottir, a granddaughter of Loftsson, now a widow of great means, and formed a common-law relationship that lasted the rest of his life. She was a much younger woman. Although they were fond of each other they had no children together, concentrating instead on raising the children they had had with others. Five of Snorri's children survived to adulthood.
Failure in Iceland
Many of the other chiefs found his position as royal office-holder contrary to their interests, especially the other Sturlungar. Snorri's strategy was to consolidate power over them, at which point he could offer Iceland to the king. His first moves were civic. On the death in 1222 of Sæmundur, son of Jón Loftsson, he became a suitor for the hand of his daughter, Sólveig. Herdís' silent vote did nothing for his suit. His nephew, Sturla Sighvatson, Snorri's political opponent, stepped in to marry her in 1223, the year before Snorri met Hallveig.
A period of clan feuding followed. Snorri perceived that only resolute, saga-like actions could achieve his objective, but he proved unwilling or incapable of carrying them out. He raised an armed party under another nephew, Böðvar Þórðarson, and another under his son, Órækja, with the intent of executing a first strike against his brother Sighvatur and Sturla Sighvatson. On the eve of battle he dismissed those forces and offered terms to his brother.
Sighvatur and Sturla with a force of 1000 men drove Snorri into the countryside, where he sought refuge among the other chiefs. Órækja undertook guerrillaoperations in the fjords of western Iceland and the war was on.
Haakon IV made an effort to intervene from afar, inviting all the chiefs of Iceland to a peace conference in Norway. This maneuver was transparent to Sighvatur, who understood, as apparently Snorri did not, what could happen to the chiefs in Norway. Instead of killing his opponents he began to insist that they take the king up on his offer.
This was Órækja's fate, who was captured by Sturla during an ostensible peace negotiation at Reykjaholt, and also of Þorleifur Þórðarson, a cousin of Snorri's, who came to his assistance with 800 men and was deserted by Snorri on the battlefield in a flare-up over the chain of command. In 1237, Snorri thought it best to join the king.
The end of Snorri and the commonwealth
Further information: Age of the Sturlungs
The reign of Haakon IV (Hákon Hákonarson), King of Norway, was troubled by civil war relating to questions of succession and was at various times divided into quasi-independent regions under contenders. There were always plots against the king and questions of loyalty; nevertheless, he managed to build up the Norwegian state from what it had been.
When Snorri arrived in Norway for the second time it was clear to the king that he was no longer a reliable agent. The conflict between Haakon and Skúli was beginning to escalate into civil war. Snorri stayed with the jarl and his son and the jarl made him a jarl hoping to command his allegiance. In August 1238, Sigvat and four of his sons (Sturla, Markús, Kolbeinn, and Þórður krókur, the latter two being executed after the battle), were killed at the Battle of Örlygsstaðir in Iceland against Gissur Þorvaldsson and Kolbein the Young, chiefs whom they had provoked. Snorri, Órækja, and Þorleifur requested permission to return home. As the king now could not predict Snorri's behavior, permission was denied. He was explicitly ordered to remain in Norway on the basis of his honorary rank. Skúli on the other hand gave permission and helped them book passage.
Snorri must have had his own ideas about the king's position and the validity of his orders, but at any rate he chose to disobey them; his words according toSturlunga saga, 'út vil ek' (literally 'I want out', but idiomatically 'I will go home'), have become proverbial in Icelandic. He returned to Iceland in 1239. The king was distracted by the necessity to confront Skúli, who declared himself king in 1239. He was defeated militarily and killed in 1240. Meanwhile Snorri resumed his chieftainship and made a bid to crush Gissur by prosecuting him in court for the deaths of Sigvat and Sturla. A meeting of the Althing was arranged for the summer of 1241 but Gissur and Kolbein arrived with several hundred men. Snorri and 120 men formed around a church. Gissur chose to pay fines rather than to attack.
Meanwhile, in 1240, after the jarl's defeat, but before his removal from the scene, Haakon sent two agents to Gissur bearing a secret letter with orders to kill or capture Snorri. Gissur was being invited now to join the unionist movement, which he could accept or refuse, just as he pleased. His initial bid to take Snorri at the Althing failed.
Hallveig died of natural causes. When the family bickered over the inheritance, Hallveig's sons, Klaeing and Orm, asked assistance from their uncle Gissur. Holding a meeting with them and Kolbein the Younger, Gissur brought out the letter. Orm refused. Shortly after, Snorri received a letter in cipher runes warning him of the plot, but he could not understand them.
Gissur led seventy men on a daring raid to his house, achieving complete surprise. Snorri Sturluson was assassinated in his house at Reykholt in autumn of 1241. It is not clear that he was ever given a chance to avail himself of the "capture" option. He fled to the cellar. There, Símon knútur asked Arni the Bitter to strike him. Then Snorri said: Eigi skal höggva!—"Do not strike!" Símon answered: "Högg þú!" — "You strike now!" Snorri replied: Eigi skal höggva!—"Do not strike!" and these were his last words.
This act was not popular in either Iceland or Norway. To diminish the odium the king insisted that if Snorri had submitted he would have been spared. The fact that he could make such an argument reveals how far his influence in Iceland had come. Haakon went on suborning the chiefs of Iceland. In 1262, the Althing ratified union with Norway and royal authority was instituted in Iceland. Each member swore an oath of personal loyalty to the king, a practice which continued as each new king came to the throne, until absolute and hereditary monarchy was formally accepted by the Icelanders in 1662.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011)|
Perhaps Snorri’s most enduring importance lies in the fact that without his writings, our possibilities for perceiving the views and thoughts of pagan North Europeans, would be considerably more limited than they admittedly are. His writings provide information and indications concerning persons and events influencing the peoples inhabiting this region during periods of time during which information is scarce. 
To an extent, the legacy of Snorri Sturluson also played a role in politics long after his death. His writings could be used in support of the claims of later Norwegian kings concerning the venerability and extent of their rule. Later, Heimskringla factored in establishing a national identity during the Norwegian national independence movement.
Icelandic perception of Snorri in the 20th century and to date has been colored by the historical views adopted when they sought to sever their ties with Denmark, any revision of which still has strong nationalistic sentiments to contend with. To serve such views, Snorri and other leading Icelanders of his time are sometimes judged with some presentism, on the basis of concepts that only came into vogue centuries later, such as state, independence, sovereignty, and nation.
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|Crop circle formation:||27 circles in a circle|
|Date:||July 11, 2009|
|Location:||Radford Hill, Nr Radford Semele, Warwickshire|
The rate of rotation of the sun is dependent on the latitude and this is able to vary because the sun is a gaseous plasma. The rotation is fastest around the equator and this is also the area where most sunspots arise. The rotation on the equator and the rotations of sunspots is about 25 days on an average. However as the Earth turns around the sun simultaneously, for an observer on Earth the rotation of the equator and sunspots is about 27 days. The 27-days cycle of the suns rotation is about the same as the revolution of the moon around the Earth, which lasts about 27.32 days. This is the sidereal month, which relates to the zodiac and is considerably shorter than the lunar month which relates to the cycle of lunar phases.
Apart from that the plane of the orbit of the moon has been tilted with an angle of about 5.2° referring the ecliptic. The lunar nodes are the points were the moon passes the ecliptic and as the lunar nodes also move through the zodiac, the period between two passages of the moon over a lunar node is different from the sidereal month, namely about 27.21 days (the draconic month). There is still another important cycle, namely the anomalistic month, which is the period from the most remote position of the moon to the next most remote position of the moon and equals about 27.555 days. The same cycle of course applies for the most nearby distance of the moon.
As creation in relation with time is strongly connected with our solar system the 27-days-cycle is of major importance and this formation of 27 circles therefore has a deeper meaning. Calendars are a reflection of the creation that goes along with the cycles of the celestial bodies and especially the sun and the moon. As a year has about 365 days, in a year fit 365 / 27 = 13.52 or a maximum of 13 times the cycle of 27 days or 13 months. The other way around: when the year is divided in 13 months, this leads to months of 28 days, as 13 x 28 = 364, with only one day "out of time" to complete the cycle of 365 days. So a month actually equals 27 + 1 days, where the 28th day is "left over" or a "day out of time".
The so called 13-moon-calendar is a Mayan calendar that more or less has been based upon this principle. Despite the fact that present 13-moon-calender doesn’t consist of 27 + 1 days, but of 28 days, also this calendar has a relationship with 27 days. When we consider the "lunar day", which is the period from moonrise to the next moonrise, then 28 days almost precisely equal 27 lunar days. The 28 days consist of 4 weeks of 7 days and this we also find back in the formation:
In the formation we find a cross that brings the attention to the circles number 7 and 14. This is stressed by the fact that in the formation the 15th circle is much smaller than the 14th circle. This refers to the 4 x 7 days of the month of 28 days. Note that the division of 28 days in 4 weeks also has been based upon the cross that has been connected with the 4 directions of wind. In the formation the remaining 13 small circles are also a reflection of the 13 tones of creation that refer to the 13-moon-calender. For reasons that later will be explained there is also extra attention to the 24th day, as the last 3 circles are considerably smaller.
As the formation clearly depicts 27 circles, the calendar-month of new age will contain 27 days, 3 weeks of 9 days, with 1 day “out of time” to keep in tune with the fact that the year consists of 13 months of 28 days. At the same time, thanks to the day out of time, we are able to keep in tune with the 27 lunar days. At present the 13-moon-calendar starts on the 26th July every year. In new age the 13-moon-calendar will start on the same day as new age starts, namely the 2nd June 2012. This means that the last "year" of present age corresponds with the period from the 26th July 2011 until the 1st June 2012. This is a period of 13 x 24 days, which basically has been connected with Venus, the Tzolkins and the lunar nodes in connection with Jupiter, the Pleiades and the sun. There are only limited connections with the moon. This explains the additional focus on 24th circle in the formation.
If this interpretation is correct than the date of the formation in a way should point us to the start of the Tun Bolon with months of 27 days on the one hand and the end of the present 13-moon-calendar on the other hand. In European notation the date is 11 – 7 – 2009. The number 7 equals the number of days of the week, while 11 – 7 = 4 equals the number of weeks per month. However when we add the day- and month-number we get: 11 + 7 = 18 and like the year '09 is a multiple of 9, which refers to the enneade. The sum of the day-number, the month-number and the year equals 11 + 7 + 2009 = 2027, which refers to the 27 days per month again. 2027 is a prime-number. However it’s inviting to research the number 2028, which may refer to the 28 days a month of the present-day 13-moon-calendar. It turns out that 2028 = 13 x 13 x 12. The number 13 not only symbolizes the 13 tones of creation, but also a completion: the completion of the present-day 13-moon-calendar. The date on which this is replaced is also hidden in this number 13 x 13 x 12. The 12 points us to the year 2012 in a direct way, but the 3 numbers 13, 13 and 12 also turn out to refer to this date. When we add 9 to 12, this equals 21. This number at the same time is the reverse of 12. When we subtract the date of the formation from the fictive date 13 – 13 – ’21, we get:
|Fictive date:||13 13 '21|
|Date formation:||11 07 '09|
|Result:||02 06 '12|
This is the starting date of the Tun Bolon (2nd June 2012) with months of 27 days!
I found out that the day of the formation in symbolical sense has been connected with the 27-days cycle and the start of the year on the 26th July 2008 by the fact that the period from the 26th July 2008 until the 11th July 2009 inclusive exactly contains 13 x 27 days. Apart from that I found out that there is a relationship with the so called "Bartels Rotation Number". This is a number that is used in science to identify the number of rotations of the sun which has been defined as 27 days. The first rotation number started on the 8th February 1832. The period from this date until the date of the formation exactly equals 2400 Bartels Rotations (2400 x 27 days) + 2 days. This also exactly equals 180 "Tun" + 2 days. One Tun is a cosmic year of 360 days. When we add 3 Tun to the day of the formation, this falls on the 25th June 2012. However when we take into consideration the fact that in the year 1863 23 days have been skipped in the Tun-cycle, we actually should subtract 23 days from that and this considers the 2nd June 2012, the start of new age and the start of the new 13-moon-calendar! There is also a symbolical connection with the end of present 13-moon-calendar on the 25th July 2011, as the period between the formation and this date equals 744 days, which exactly equals 744 / 27.555 = 27 anomalistic months (note the double 27).
© Marc Smulders