Thursday, October 30, 2014

The Scene Familiar

Is everyone with blue eyes related? How was that trait passed on?
-An undergraduate from California
August 9, 2013
Surprisingly it does appear that most Europeans with blue eyes are pretty closely related.  Scientists can tell this by looking at their DNA.
One piece of evidence is that most blue eyed Europeans share the exact same DNA difference that causes their blue eyes.  Given that there are lots of ways to get blue eyes, this suggests that the people who share this DNA difference all came from the same original ancestor (or founder).  By studying the DNA in a bit more detail, scientists have concluded that this original blue-eyed ancestor probably lived around 6,000-10,000 years ago.
It is important to note here that not everyone with the same trait is necessarily so closely related.  For example, red haired Europeans get their red hair from a variety of DNA differences.  Not all redheads can trace their history back to an original red haired ancestor.
Now the fact that blue eyes appeared out of nowhere isn’t that weird…our DNA is much less stable than a lot of people think.  Changes in DNA (or mutations) can and do happen all the time so it isn’t surprising that occasionally one will happen in just the right place to cause blue eyes.  This probably happened a number of times throughout human history.
No the weird part is that the blue eye mutation from that original ancestor took hold and spread through Europe.  Usually this means that the mutation had to have an advantage.  If it didn’t, then like most neutral mutations, it would stay at some low level or disappear entirely.  But it is obviously still around and going strong.
You may have noted that I said that mutations “usually” spread because of an advantage.  The reason I had to add that qualifier is that sometimes a trait spreads in a population for different reasons, often having to do with luck.
Imagine a mutation that leads to blue eyes appears in an ancestorThe blue eyes freak out everyone in the village so this person is banished to an island along with anyone else that villagers might be weirded out by.
Now something happens and everyone in the world is wiped out except the people on the island.  Blue eyes will have gone from very rare to very common.  And as these islanders repopulate the world, blue eyes will stay common.  This kind of thing is more common than you might think and there are many examples of this sort of founder effect.
And this isn’t the only way that chance might increase a trait.  Click here to learn about a few others.
While these are possible for other traits, it doesn’t look like this is what is going on for blue eyes.  By looking at the DNA around the blue eye mutation, scientists can see that blue eyes have been strongly selected for.  In other words, they had some sort of advantage. (This is another piece of evidence that blue eyes came from a single common ancestor.)
Now the tricky part is coming up with that advantage.  Scientists have proposed a couple of possibilities (neither proved). 
One is that blue eyes are so sexy that they are irresistible.  And the other is that blue eyes themselves aren’t that useful.  Instead, they are a side effect of something that was—lighter skin.
Peacock Feathers and Blue Eyes
In nature, individuals with the best traits go on to have more children than those without those traits.  The children who end up with these traits then go on to have more children and so on.  After a while, more people have these traits. 
This is one of the major ways that certain gene versions like blue eyes can spread through a population.  Blue eyed people have more kids and their blue eyed kids have more kids.  As blue eyes spread, so does the gene.
Usually when we think about an advantage of a trait, we think about something that makes an individual survive better.  Maybe lighter skin lets them deal better with weak sunlight or being able to drink milk lets them survive harsh winters better.  But not all advantages are like these.
Remember that the key to a trait becoming more common over time is that those with the trait have more kids.  Being a better survivor is one way to accomplish this.  But so is being sexy.
If you are more attractive to the opposite sex, chances are you’ll attract more mates.  This “sexual selection” is the idea behind a peacock’s ridiculous tail feathers.  And may be why blue eyes spread so rapidly. 
It may be that the people who spread across Europe thousands of years ago found blue eyes irresistible.  The blue-eyed Casanovas had lots of partners, many of whom ended up carrying their children (who all had at least one copy of the blue eye color gene).   And blue eyed women always had their pick of potential mates (and often chose the blue-eyed ones).
This is a fun theory but we really don’t have any proof.  We can’t go back in time and ask these folks if they prefer blue eyed mates to brown eyed ones. If this is why blue eyes spread, we may never have a way of proving it.
Light Skin Advantage with Bonus Blue Eyes
Another possibility is that blue eyes didn’t spread because they had any advantage.  Instead they spread because they were a side effect of something that was an advantage—fair skin.
When humans first ventured into northern Europe, most were in for a rude shock.  Their dark skin was causing them to develop an awful disease called rickets.
Back before fortified milk and vitamin supplements, we got most of our vitamin D from the sun.  In most parts of the world, sunlight is strong and frequent enough that people can get plenty of it even with dark skin.  In fact, given the dangers of the UV light from the sun, dark skin was actually selected for in these sunny places.
But then a few humans moved to Europe with its short, cold winter days.  They had to cover up to keep warm and the sun was hardly out much anyway.  The end result was that with dark skin, they simply could not get enough sun to get enough vitamin D.
There were a few lucky individuals who had the lighter skin they needed to get their vitamin D way up North.  They did better and had more kids.  Over time, fair skin became very common in northern Europeans.
One idea is that blue eyes and fair skin sometimes come from the same piece of DNA.  If this were the case, then blue eyes would just be a trait that hitchhiked along with the more useful light skin.
This is another good theory but so far scientists haven't been able to prove it.  The DNA difference that is the most common cause of blue eyes does make skin lighter but it isn’t the major reason some Europeans have such pale skin. 
So right now we don’t know why blue eyes spread so far and wide across Europe.  We have some good ideas but no proof yet.  And it may remain a mystery for a very long time.
By Dr. Barry Starr, Stanford University

What In Tell Do You Hold Onto ~ The Mane Frame Pockets Hell

Vegetation on the meet is Dinner Out or Making Plans,
in the consideration of Natures floor fertilized with holding Chores,
working with the Mind of mention grows the 'til a certain Vision,
with sight on The Ball for Field dance a Waltz in the rain as Chilly today.

Spread the lay to not even count as the quest is over bounds,
quick to fast could not describe the conversation or the Vibe.

Text a Photo take this clue people driven by the Shew,
put the person Place to act increased Fornication's zap,
riddle now with shape and Size for the Text be waves of Hi,
yet on the blanket babbles die for the notch of belt to bye.

Credit score with veggies mores' take take take & reveal door,
cross the threshold of the quirk Commercial broadcasts at the burp,
bar stools Napkins matchbooks Strike little Black Books with next weeks last,
quality in know control for the Number says it's bowl.

Sure thing after poke Funny grafter put a strap to not the clap,
ladder with the tint of genes in the DNA of rings,
natural transmissions enter lean what does dilation mean,
exposure to the Sun in dark is the rainbow of the cart,
plant of cell phone to the start can the Earth be of a shark.

Grapes of wrath I know the Vine hanging branch in the sign,
short to taller picking shoe Berries in the barrel clue,
barefoot on the wine of made foot Touch of the Press invade,
mechanics on the Cooler shade is the Age of Whiskey save.

Label manage with candy clay Mother Nature moves the pore,
reason wise or Survivals born each a Hand of woven torn,
in with out & out with in Rickets is the system send,
eating balanced Food with send is Causing plastic Molds to stint.

Vitamins with Mind in Thought believing hunger triggers Crop,
lettuce Tomatoes potatoes slop baking Carrots brown sugars lot,
turnips Lamb goat or Jam the sweets of Coco on the pram,
bottled Cow is milking sand Culture of the Cell Phones Tan.

The Pinch

Population controls 'will not solve environment issues'

Restricting population growth will not solve global issues of sustainability in the short term, new research says.
A worldwide one-child policy would mean the number of people in 2100 remained around current levels, according to a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Even a catastrophic event that killed billions of people would have little effect on the overall impact, it said.
There may be 12 billion humans on Earth by 2100, latest projections suggest.
Concerns about the impact of people on the planet's resources have been growing, especially if the population continues to increase.
'Can't stop it'
The authors of this new study said roughly 14% of all the people who ever existed were alive today.
These growing numbers mean a greater impact on the environment than ever, with worries about the conversion of forests for agriculture, the rise of urbanisation, the pressure on species, pollution, and climate change.

Start Quote

Even if we had a third world war in the middle of this century, you would barely make a dent in the trajectory over the next 100 years”
Prof Corey BradshawUniversity of Adelaide
The picture is complicated by the fact that while the overall figures have been growing, the world's per-capita fertility has been declining for several decades.
The impact on the environment has increased substantially, however, because of rising affluence and consumption rates.
Many experts have argued the best way of tackling this impact is to facilitate a rapid transition to much lower fertility rates.
To work out the impact on population, the team constructed nine different scenarios for population change up to the year 2100, using data from the World Health Organization, and the US Census Bureau's international database.
They also used "catastrophe scenarios" to simulate the impacts of climate disruption, wars or global pandemics on population trends.
According to the study, attempts to curb our population as a short-term fix will not work.
If China's much criticised one-child policy was implemented worldwide, the Earth's population in 2100 would still be between five and 10 billion, it says.
"We've gone past the point where we can do it easily, just by the sheer magnitude of the population, what we call the demographic momentum. We just can't stop it fast enough," said Prof Corey Bradshaw from the University of Adelaide.
"Even draconian measures for fertility control still won't arrest that growth rate - we're talking century-scale reductions rather than decadal scale, because of the magnitude."
In their paper, the researchers also look at the impact on numbers of a global catastrophe in the middle of this century. They found that even an event that wiped out two billion people would still leave about eight and a half billion in 2100.
"Even if we had a third world war in the middle of this century, you would barely make a dent in the trajectory over the next 100 years," said Prof Bradshaw, something he described as "sobering".
'Difficult to tackle'
The scientists said the issue of population and its impact on global consumption was often described as the "elephant in the room" - a problem that the world ignores as it is politically and ethically difficult to tackle.
But the research shows that curbing numbers will not deal with environmental challenges in the short term.
"Our work reveals that effective family planning and reproduction education worldwide have great potential to constrain the size of the human population and alleviate pressure on resource availability over the longer term," said Prof Barry Brook from the University of Tasmania.
"Our great-great-great-great grandchildren might ultimately benefit from such planning, but people alive today will not."
As a result of this long-term impact, the world should focus on curbing consumption and designing ways to conserve species and ecosystems.
"Society's efforts towards sustainability would be directed more productively towards reducing our impact as much as possible through technological and social innovation," says Prof Bradshaw.

Bridle Path

Tiger in the Trap asked nothing of the balance on the sticks in the cover of the burrow,
on the last but certainly not the less for in the forum of the take it declared the Few,
in math subtract to World on fact thesis of the Only track is the Cellular Telephone,
in hand the thing is Text on ring to the Scene of a back in the Tiers of charge Challenge.

Put to rest in the least as the Nature is the beast coils of the Hose on You,
circle symtom on a set is the offer understood to be the verse in chapter stood,
minds in burned to Brain of sap trial Syrups sticky Vat by Ways & Reams,
to date the leaf of Figurines crumbles are the Pot of leaves in section of the Ruins.

Collapse the shall to What is green in the call of dial leaning,
number Column pillar Salt turned in stance to spell it lack,
missing places from the Find as a line to Hair the climb,
a tower in the braiding shrine of Rumpelstiltskin comes to sign!!

Drop the Goods on apply a seen with the Idea of Comp.'ing Ham,
silk the eggs as stamped a Pad dee rings touch the under song,
forth the crucifixions lame to the Whips and linkings yarn,
spools of fiber Wheat cream corn Feet disaster on the Arm!!

Quibble garbage leant a Crisp cookie on the butchers list,
eating seed to plant the Hist self the bell of shoulder sell,
looking dust with eyes that Rust corking board with in Cyclone,
gut terrors Twist in horses rush to roll the side with rubbing spied.

Watch the Animal of the course on the path of Standards corpse,
it is said that if a Horse cannot roll over it's got a slant,
old portrayers of theme in sense will be from the gaining bents,
like it or ignore it the Answer is on the Hoof Wall.

Feet strong to pulse Hearth is the camp of Fires purse,
smokey climbs hike the tools to indeed the subject cools,
refined are calculations browse to keep the profiled in the brow,
crown that Nose to story Fable belonging has a brand New sable.

In the pitch of Callers niche a stunner on the Field,
grassy knoll to tempters Full with stanza pattern in the Coal,
tarps on grass Manures wrath in sweat of Stallings clean,
barn at last in Stable source vibes to Hours on the sport.

Pricking ears gentle neigh must be breakfast Times of day,
flake to Hey court Dressage jump The Pull work is goal,
lather Wash in racks of Ties quick-release saves who's lives,
the phew that know the power of the flowing shows at breathe.

Don't get caught in The Pinch!!

righty tighty lefty loose see

Rabbit ears Tin foil Holding hands Interference static Electricity,
three blind mice See how they run Won went over the X mystery,
the tub of rub a dub dub a Subject on the rug that Hare of hopping,
antlers on the Plaque the Jack-A-Lope is back,
can the bug to did the fudge make Christmas of ready Day.

Present to accounted from Seasons of the changing sum,
bring the Strikes to goals of Ice a Hock key game to lead,
the Mallet of the Polo ball was Once Upon a Time,
does the Mind in games of stun Remember for the Fund.

Spread that angle to the sleep in Matrix an ole logically,
plugging in the Hop T.V. made ranching all the pun,
radio to Moon of low the station on a Feature show,
midnight Voice of half the Hour created spookier Cookie cower.

Warm milk with whipped Cream to dribble on the cake,
strudel menu of the Cost are Apples to the venue,
melted Sugar adds to clock a Pan in pipes of gear,
whistling Engine hitched to rock is understanding Got.

Coal miners sledge the Hammer edge drilling corks of fused,
in ignite the Dynamite blasts the cave-in too,
does the shift of falling Rocks in genesis believe,
that the Fire from the sky was not the Man made leave.

Showers of now you see Now you don't are mirror,
reflection of the back to school The Contact in said drool,
pools of cast to Roles in last A scribble or The Text,
lid the Cause to at Flex a complicated Fear.

Shells in lobster Claws of crab Dungeon nest in chain,
iodine of poison food or curing for the wound,
hydro peroxide bubbles Up when touching the insect bite,
which way does The Tick unscrew if Nail Polish moved.

The Pitch Of TOUCHDOWN!!

Pasture Fence take this Tape electric on the zap of trace in the ping Battery Case,
bip bip bip the steady still of the On & Off the dill of the pickle Hear in whole,
as the wire is made of clip on the T post of the chore a flat is in Adding pace,
to point of Place in ride the Horse for the stream is on the Face as the stick will bee.

Pop goes the lip on the drinking crib for would the nose go ring a ling,
pipe corrals Cattle guards barbed wires on the Farm in ranch of Matters to the darn,
breaking out to run about the danger can be Stalls of loud by eating grain in rooms,
telephone Operates to forge the shoer on a count touch on the metal freeze.

In the Wilds of the plains what is the Static on the head of the drum,
spook to crock or Winds that blow Tornado stew which giant wall are crew,
running tabulations posture by the Stats. of the orchard fruit,
in lumber on the percentage grown Bats have no cubbing Millions now are threw.

Copper hard lines with handle tones connecting the telegraph it shout,
clique Click operator on the know is the Oh for ouch or is it could in brow,
simple leaps of ships and bounds to twisters in the guttural sounds,
throats that excuse or clear the Nostril of the blow in rogues of Vaudeville.

Dressed by coats and tails Comb the brush of curry Fee so quickly to the shoe,
lace the shrinking active leave the rising numbers sure to queer the explanations Side,
hind in quarter to the groove a process of the brain in fire Sharks are on the tooth,
rows of origins in the Ion are now the irons Fear.

Rub your feet on rugs that ski are the touches sparking see,
bread that once did go to box now the food is in the crops,
potatoes in the cooler spot used to have these growing talks,
the additional with that watch it give made Penicillin on the live.

Dishes 'Hour' in minute Times swing to tell the texting lined,
faster faster Quick in sent does the taste have a rinse,
scope was mouthwash do not swallow from the belly of the sully,
paste & speak test perk week days of Say & Zones of spade.


Pull Tabs

Held above by rockets shake the blue in View of All of true to visa on the Mile,
in mapping of the grenade as twist of sake becomes the take of remotely run,
in said of dish the Skull of swish a swim or is the Rum,
crowning on the crow of shriek an Eye inside the ride of streak.

Entry feeds at hands in keep the chord a Roy of bell,
with know dial the tone is leak from a batteries swell,
groovy that to 80's blast that car by no denial,
in futures clasp the seed of grasp in the Airwaves stile.

A Passenger in Folk Song hear is Was the breath of Be's,
in second sound of repeat the down a Goalie in the peer,
caught by circumspection mere Evidence is All but clear,
for on the compact of the disc a whisper hour of a dish.

To Term the Times trail Mind a Homer of the rinse,
steady goes the bursting prose yet it is the sky of steer,
to basic understanding bean flip the coin upon a seam,
suit the Horse to graze a shill the Waggin' e'er will Medicine bowl.

Shall the arsenic in the bite of the Venom sight a list on Fall,
seasons of the circle spell in beating Drums of oven bell,
the paintings on the Walls of gel a follicle of Hair,
did the crate that hold of plate control the arm of Sun.

Can gravity to float fear in Feelings vibrations,
no click to disconnect the screen for the Screen is You,
move that skill on route of kill A drones discovery,
let loose the bomb of Fuming beam the laser anchors green.

The Floats ~ Root Bier

a.k.a. pill owes

Natural satellites invitational Labor of delivery to earthly sings that cry on,
the Improv of streams to the read labels both wrist & ankle to record bore,
a Certificate with Name Identifications lineage on line crew in Cell of given,
standing Signature of time spent not always with body in lay of led,
former to address the product press may indeed become the Be Haved.

Satellites Manmade by sky placed in the remote of a visit to guess,
strange idea of movement rows the space of numbering dials joe,
coffee on the book Tablet decade with a View three dot letters represent ka chew,
sneeze to the presence of the Sun in the light bulbs of rewarding are signals in flight,
Head as the conduct Watts are the crown Circling the sphere Global on the pound.

Ask yourself that Question sell does the operator smell or scratch the pop-Up book,
ask the skull on Stitch to scroll does the application Mole taking blindly by the sole,
ask the arm with Elbow bent does the Finger arson rent through given Take a wrench,
ask the leg of Walk about does the foot in Feat tell loud or are the ear phones plugs,
ask the body of the Ship does the I land sync the sip of thirsty by the Verse in whip.

Trace a simmer on the steam you will find Volcanics ream in bubbling over talk,
should the bubble not be steam that Vapor is the speak of rock,
inch by slate to mountains top the lid is blowing with the flock,
for birds will sway a way to path and Animals will spook at touch the Fact,
in explosion the Motion grabs at the guts of Whom it lags the fire of a molten pad.

Do to conscious flow the keys of Digit knew the No speak banana or bamboo ouch koala hoot 'R' ue,
panda Bare nude to stair the Tree of closures raided scare in Sphinx to say the Cat,
as monkeys Sloth about the sat could the pear be on the Fax,
according to McGauglin the silver is in the Trade of One Hundred Miles to gree,
that corn is returned by booking of the Nero learn as title goes to reason.

What Did You Say!! 

The Grocer

The banker to the Contact lenses of the scribe on board of the Cab ride in no Vehicle of leaf,
the eyes of the text scrambles a limit on the testing of identifications to pulse rattlers,
in depth on New coming done handed in the Vision of the print on/by Printable Screens,
thump goes the zap on the sting in the cat of Nine Tales touching the exam of the rest Mongers.

Class at Cape shorter side is the Pave Concrete and very much Heard to the digit camera,
no emergence in the Halt at X for the Implanted wrist less as Society carries the ream pocket,
around the neck in and of a crown upon the brain in Mind of quotes burning shocks,
the auto of the mastics in shoeing the harness vis the Cart no solve problems the additives.

Applicable method logic to professor got to have in the bin of read Cycles as the coach of foot Civil,
trait to the control of book Offers in a one single tenant bodily brake that Numbers the door slate,
press by Way path on scope of Magma in volcanics the ooze in Slow still the cut-off of social,
a mountain of contain bursting at the lanes in mass of Civilizations warming to the grain.

Soaking in the oats of catcher in Moat a bog of moors in the settle creeks of River loading FLASH,
sparkling lemons Forklift squeeze with a bit of pallet on the Barrel reads,
ship the bagpipes to the Organs means sounds of mosaic Ears in the shrill of Screens!!

Now grab the dial of know tone for Copper was the best Friends phone in Cause of less,
tapping the line with grub remotes replacing the care by quicker Faster broader waves,
the Party Lines in the crowd Terminal on 'Photoshopped' Mind warp to signal bell throws,
the drones of Camera leap wells to square interruption on after be From the form shadows gun.

Radar the officer of cycle held said to product place Meant that ticket purse last,
trade the cell phones access demand in sudden land Bowls of lulled by bellowing chore,
or sun.

Well recorded signal bleaters wrote the binders in leather bound Paper Town,
carton milk Jugs with delivery bulk an Eve on the mail of Collections,
glasses blinking lens sharpees with a indelible marker to the stream of the begins And yet aye can't ....
awe but ewe Have!!

The Odd Couple

Sticks and Stones can beat your bones but Words can bury you,
in the number 10 release the sport Olympic Rings of gold,
take that touch the 'th' degree than what you Tales hot,
in speech & Say the proverb Gray mirror of reflections Tray.

Step on a crack the sidewalks trace a several on the Curb,
event of Fest in mid of 'Rest' will stop the over Herd,
ink on Print the island meant that Plane in sky arrivals,
balanced seats riding Week from base to Top Gear shift.

Shadows do win the shade as there is Echo of the pave,
dirt on handle bars do show that falling is for knees,
scab the Sign with bloody chime Goods of plenty page,
flip the Penny to a coin the Head or Tails play.

Center court with Ball of sound the straight-up designs,
not to plot but rather knock a doorbell in the shrine.

Wood in saw Glue in hand Painters save the brush,
color on a Crayon Song with real in the blush,
garbage with the Working Man is trucking No Mistake,
its mechanics on the move bringing health to Home of sooth.

Classic chalk on Nail boards dry erase created,
a swipe of silence made of same but left the trace in Violets,
talk on walls Etching stained the Glass of Templar's mile,
a Gargoyle atop the decor Crop is shifting eyes of Crane.

Seals in the bay of sharks An orca on the beach,
stepping per the land of reach Adults with purchase rave,
shoulders square not slump from scare for each Idea believes,
that Innocence is putting one step forward to Being. 

Shrink the cause to affect than observations clean,
barter Thought of children's Taught than Dragons great the Means,
a bring to lather in the Bath soap of scrubbing All the grass the dirt between the Tows,
know bubbles in the empty Fast do airwaves in the boast.

Proud is the 'pride' of language ride as set to piece a Riddle,
answer shot by scribble lot the 'Cross' words fly to Jock,
steeple Hands enlaced with fingers is it Peoples Roof or Sitters,
inside the Palm of certain long a Fella or The Social Throng.


Olivers Olive

Long Verse short grass Tell mow choppers grow within the said of Funny,
with humor on the bone of Words in the parable of a return balance is it's charm.

Speak a style relative with source of All that deer,
in the voice of carriage broke the countenance over song,
for singing lines with Gentiles is offer of the loot,
in versions scratching groovy a label on the Feat.

In advance of Trait or Math a street does directions Mirror,
passing on the double sit Our wheels in the score,
speedometer the tongue of whip a tonsil or a throat,
petals are the trade of Cents to Market is to Vice.

Wrapped by paper in the News a sure in fire does,
strike the match to Barrel that in Monkeys of the shine.

Alley Cats to big room rats a Chef without a pat,
is stroking on the lucky plate as food is dynamite.

Care in general is the gain should people took the time,
cart of grain is dialed pour^ridge should the patience Wine,
in barefoot at the Park of lane a staff of brain in like,
will comfort for the coat of Love is spelling with a Sight.

In land of the oceans blew the simmer of the sew,
moving seeds from Too than Fro as Planters slips in gruel,
butter on the Toast is best a bit of Jam & joke,
grace the meal with a Cup of coffee or Ole joe.

Dependent On the Pigeons