Wednesday, November 23, 2016

Remember Spreckels Lake Gave A Road To Just Being Able To Say Appaloosa Today, November 23, 2016

As the average led looks in.side of another world the venue is of the out write to know,
the basis for the beech is to learn of the wrote,
it is the Uniform that has great portion and upped the trending to now??,
know it was my honor to an Officer and his horse on a day that lasts for all times!!

The National Media had breaking News and what is the tab??,
two hundred twenty-five views to Market price,
public league of pay,
these are the faxed??,
is it a question to the Officer down??,
or is the truth morning.

What than makes the used store,
is it the memory or the Chess,
a piece of Wares!!

Be not alarmed as the Siren is well to the Watch,
these are the notes to know row^Men POE IT's,
ask the eye land and thus the travel in viewed,
for the backup is a slide??

Grace to fracture is painful,
the fax to hand a figure makes template a Goods yesterday,
it is the patience that marks this to date,
therefrom the reliance is the scene to counter.

Numb burrs the Chills of the goose,
it is the duck feather that said to the lake of frost,
ice makes the watered,
Neet gives the glass a shot the tumbler is the fill,
these backs that have raft to ask,
why is it awl write instead of the gossip on sight,
safety, safety, safety a radio formula.

Remind the car to actual,
the window on the thermals,
vest to wise,
eyes up as the facts tell the view of how trending shares.

The great forest of Mankind the humanity that gave cruel stitch to people's minds,
as the parade of persons goes to the hem what is the planet of their girth,
in billets to bit the bridle and the rein,
as that is not even the mounting of the horse of their voice,
in vernacular shores the scratch to only stale dry irons as the plate,
it is the crock of melted lumber to twine a twig,
the branches that timber does hold to graves and Tombs.

In ancient very clear,
the mass on the planet in the earth of a hemisphere to touch equator of realities,
the Cosmic grow to a field of more is the path of which race at the thermal chill,
is it the proud working flesh to bleed the dirt to muddy weeps,
are the tiers in the ocean a wave of song to sing lyrics of the reef,
is a fossil in a bone fragment the Tell of Times in Ages of traveling Walls with chisel Hammered in clause,
quire to that and the galaxy speaks a Universe to compass a clued.

Shall the ring change to that than the Milky Waves on a sleigh is the mappers Chi old,
only on entry to language does the voice clay,
as each wording cranes to chore the egg,
a scramble of scrabble thus the sands??.
look to the meaning of a sky at the 22nd Star in the Northern Constellation,
those names that bring morning to dawn,
Being of the Ages!!!

From that grain to the Salts,
a table set for the silver,
the gold in the mountain to forge the valley a bridge as the cave is minor grade to collection,
waltzing with the farther is the explosive conservation of what is a brain to the skull,
in thigh to elbow room a particle gene to why is a cell in the spinal flew,
warning of the hots that frogs boil slowly as the leper reaps only the style of whelp,
blue Neighs to swelling in that form is the dust in a jackets filed.

Truss roof with Viola on a piano bench as the sky is the show a cloud in the pour'n,
water from the earth filing a claim.

A twister to the mid of charge electricity on the gems,
diamonds sculpted in exculpatory sheer as the dig is the rig that knows of the core,
in through to a scene as the pearl or the bean magic is nigh the magic of life on the themes,
be of the ground to land the foot in rule of measuring what is a mile,
to that is the freeway of those ease bringing I the character of the signed pause,
for even divide the tag line to a Watch,
this is the posture of position and life is the learn of a lived!!!!!!

I Have A Dream?? You May Want To Read Wikipedia On That And Say BLM Or Is It Now Tied??

October 25th, 2016 at 6:09 pm

Shout or shove the tool tacking what is a bit piece,
is it the counter of only the pad dock,
or fact to the theme??

How must the girth be a cinch to the tight ten,
is the count a value to measure the rule of cadence or dig??

Chase the mouse to mice at peanuts butter,
the crave of milk to a verse in a Means,
system a thought with a wink.

Fashion only the address of a vocal language speaking to drive,
the gears are not the call interupt,
as commerce to what is the screen,
is it reality or the throttle of in Gins and beans??

Should the tribe of a country travel the dolls,
valley a puppet and string bridges to Pi,
as the math of the height is question to step??,
than why would the strength take time on the song??

Shall lyrics grasp gauge that more than it banked??,
does person to persons revoke or deep wrote,
each pause to a feather or the tickle be brand,
is the century shallow or is the eye brow just aye??

African-American history - Wikipedia

African-American history branch of American history that specifically discusses the African-American or Black American ethnic groups in the United States. ..... Most African Americans are the descendants of Africans forcibly brought to .... Blacks from the Caribbean whose ancestors immigrated...African Americans have been known by various names throughout American history, including colored and Negro, which are no longer accepted in English. Instead the most usual and accepted terms nowadays are African American and Black, which however may have different connotations (see African American#Terminology)....

Do You Know The Day Black People Became "African-American ...

Oct 20, 2015 - By Eric Easter – The debate over what black people call themselves spans centuries. While people think it is a relatively recent term, ...
By Eric Easter – The debate over what black people call themselves spans centuries. While people think it is a relatively recent term, “African-American” has always had a prominent place in that debate. In fact, Yale scholar and associate librarian Fred Shapiro found evidence of the term’s usage in a document as early as 1782.
But for whatever reason, the term never really took hold until 1988. And I played a part in the moment that sparked the switch.
That moment unfolded in December 1988, in a lower-level conference room of the Hyatt Hotel near O’Hare Airport in Chicago. The Rev. Jesse Jackson was holding a closed session with the National Rainbow Coalition and Operation PUSH board and other high -ranking campaign supporters. After working on Jackson’s 1988 presidential bid, I had become press secretary for the National Rainbow Coalition.
The meeting was to be an “agenda-setting” session intended to send a signal about Jackson’s future and how he would harness the potential of the coalition he had built during his presidential bid. Anticipation was high from the media, with serious speculation about runs for mayor, governor, senator, or appointment to ambassadorships.
The discussions were free-flowing, with most of the attendees wanting to tackle ongoing issues from apartheid and sanctions to labor unions to farmers, and even talk about planning for a third presidential race and what would be needed to make it viable.
After lunch, unexpectedly, the late C. Delores Tucker (best known for taking on rap music and Tupac Shakur) stood up and made a highly passionate argument for the use of “African-American” as opposed to black. Her reason was clear and simple: “Nobody lives in Blackland!” Everyone has a spiritual and cultural connection attached to a place in the world that their ancestors called home, except black people. “African-American” would give us a connection to our heritage, our past and our future.
No one opposed Tucker’s point, as I recall. The reaction was more akin to “You have our attention. Tell us more.” Soon, the late Rev. Willie Barrow, co-founder of Operation PUSH, concurred, with equal conviction. The rest of the conversation became a rolling affirmation. Once Jackson was persuaded, the agenda was set.
After the meeting, I spent the better part of the day (pre-cellphone, pre-email) drafting a press release and scrambling to convince the media to attend a major announcement that I could not clearly define. In all honesty, much of the Rainbow Coalition staff thought that the name change went in an odd direction, or at least was not significant enough to drive an agenda after a long campaign focused on deeper issues.
But the media showed up, and though the press conference did cover several other issues, the headlines that followed focused on racial terminology exclusively.
The reaction – for and against “African-American” – was strong and immediate, though the term’s real shift to popular usage was much more gradual.

The debate that engaged black Americans was even more contentious inside newsrooms and editorial offices, with writers and editors arguing over the style and substance of this change. Editors worried about the fallout if  they got it wrong, Writers worried that the new name was cumbersome. Could you use “black” and “African-American” in the same article and be correct, or did all references have to be one or the other?
On Jackson’s part, the press conference itself was much less effective than the calls that he later made personally to the editors of The Washington Post, The New York Times, and USA Today. Eventually, major newspapers and magazines began including rules for usage of the new term, even as it entered style guides. The Oxford Dictionary included the term only as recently as 2001. The rest is history.
Many people remain conflicted about the term for numerous reasons. And confused. It’s not unusual to hear otherwise smart journalists refer to blacks in Mexico, London, or Norway incorrectly as “African-Americans.”
I go back and forth between both pride and guilt for my small role in promoting this expression. I still think the word “black” speaks of strength and a connection to everyone who is black, wherever they are in the diaspora – China, Europe, Australia, whatever. And with global thinking in mind, I’m much more likely to use that word. Still, “African American” is another tool in the box to describe our complicated history.
But beyond preference or heritage, there may be a strong economic incentive to choose one or the other. In a 2014 Emory University report, researchers found a nearly $8,000 average salary difference between those whom whites perceived to be “black” vs. those seen as “African-American.” The latter commanded more dollars, and job applicants using “African-American” were twice as likely to be considered as managerial candidates than those who identified as black. So clearly there is something in a name, but the change was not about how others see you, but how you choose to see yourself.
Eric Easter is editorial director of Urban News Service.
“Stolen Moments” is an Urban News Services series that features little-known personal stories about key moments in black history, politics, and culture.

What Is A Fence To The BLM While Acronyms Just State No Goes For The POA Should I Just Say Stable??

Bureau of Land Management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management Triangle
Flag of the United States Bureau of Land Management.svg
Flag of the Bureau of Land Management
Agency overview
Formed1946; 70 years ago
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionUnited States federal government
Headquarters1849 C Street NW Room 5665, Washington, D.C.U.S. 20240
Employees11,621 Permanent and 30,860 Volunteer (FY 2012)[1]
Annual budget$1,162,000,000 (FY 2014 operating)[1]
Agency executive
  • Neil Kornze, Director
Parent agencyU.S. Department of the Interior
Horses crossing a plain near the Simpson Park Wilderness Study Area in central Nevada, managed by the Battle Mountain BLM Field Office
Snow-covered cliffs of Snake River Canyon, Idaho, managed by the Boise District of the BLM
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres (1,001,000 km2) of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.[2] President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service.[3] The agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres (2,800,000 km2) of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal, state and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862.[3] Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: AlaskaArizonaCaliforniaColoradoIdahoMontanaNevadaNew MexicoOregonUtahWashington and Wyoming.[4]
This map shows land owned by different federal government agencies. The yellow represents the Bureau of Land Management's holdings.
The mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations."[5] Originally BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by.[4] All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres (630,000 km2) of BLM public lands.[6] The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres (120,000 km2).[7] There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups.[8][9][10]


The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.[11] These laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.[11]As additional lands were acquired by the United States from SpainFrance and other countries, the United States Congressdirected that they be explored, surveyed, and made available for settlement.[11] During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.[12] After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, EnglandFrance, and Spain, ceded territory to the United States.[13][14] In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio.[15] By this time, the United States needed revenue to function.[16] Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive.[16] In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted. The Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors.[16] The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error; once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, a modern public land survey system had been developed.[17] In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands.[15] By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled.[18]
Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.[11][18] Several different types of patents existed.[19] These include cash entry, credit, homestead, Indian, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, railroads, state selections, swamps, town sites, and town lots.[19] A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.[19] This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States.[17] The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded.[20]
In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands.[20] The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing, exploration, and production of selected commodities, such as coaloilgas, and sodium to take place on public lands.[21] The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees.[22][23] The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon.[24]
In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.[20] It took several years for this new agency to integrate and reorganize.[25] In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land.[20] The agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River.[26] As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, and federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi.[27]
BLM personnel on the ground have typically been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance.[28] By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership.[11] The law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that they are utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people."[29]
Since the Reagan years of the 1980s, Republicans have often given priority to local control and to grazing, mining and petroleum production, while Democrats have more often emphasized environmental concerns even when granting mining and drilling leases.[30] In September 1996, then President Bill Clinton used his authority under the Antiquities Actto establish the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in southern Utah, the first of now 20 national monuments established on BLM lands and managed by the agency.[7] The establishment of Grand Staircase-Escalante foreshadowed later creation of the BLM's National Landscape Conservation System in 2000. Use of the Antiquities Act authority, to the extent it effectively scuttled a coal mine to have been operated by Andalex Resources, delighted recreation and conservation enthusiasts but set up larger confrontations with state and local authorities.[31][32] The changing demographics in the western states have led some to suggest that the BLM, long derided as the "Bureau of Livestock and Mines," is in the midst of becoming the "Bureau of Landscapes and Monuments."[3]

BLM programs[edit]

Most of the public lands held by the Bureau of Land Management are located in the western states.[33]
  • Grazing. The BLM manages livestock grazing on nearly 155 million acres (630,000 km2) million acres under the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934.[34] The agency has granted more than 18,000 permits and leases to ranchers who graze their livestock, mostly cattle and sheep, at least part of the year on BLM public lands.[34] Permits and leases generally cover a 10-year period and are renewable if the BLM determines that the terms and conditions of the expiring permit or lease are being met.[34] The federal grazing fee is adjusted annually and is calculated using a formula originally set by Congress in the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978.[34] Under this formula, the grazing fee cannot fall below $1.35 per animal unit month (AUM), nor can any fee increase or decrease exceed 25 percent of the previous year’s level.[34][35] The grazing fee for 2014 was set at $1.35 per AUM, the same level as for 2013.[34] Over time there has been a gradual decrease in the amount of grazing that takes place on BLM-managed land.[34] Grazing on public lands has declined from 18.2 million AUMs in 1954 to 7.9 million AUMs in 2013.[34]
  • Mining. Domestic production from over 63,000 Federal "onshore" oil and gas wells on BLM lands accounts for 11 percent of the natural gas supply and five percent of the oil supply in the United States.[36] BLM has on record a total of 290,000 mining claims under the General Mining Law of 1872.[37]
  • Coal leases. The BLM holds the coal mineral estate to more than 570 million acres (2,300,000 km2) where the owner of the surface is the federal government, a state or local government, or a private entity.[38] As of 2013, the BLM had competitively granted 309 leases for coal mining to 474,252 acres (191,923 ha), an increase of 13,487 acres (5,458 ha) or nearly 3% increase in land subject to coal production over ten years' time.[38]
  • Recreation. The BLM administers 205,498 miles (330,717 km) of fishable streams, 2.2 million acres (8,900 km2) of lakes and reservoirs, 6,600 miles (10,600 km) of floatable rivers, over 500 boating access points, 69 National Back Country Byways, and 300 Watchable Wildlife sites.[39] The agency also manages 4,500 miles (7,200 km) of National ScenicNational Historic and National Recreation Trails, as well as thousands of miles of multiple use trails used by motorcyclists, hikers, equestrians, and mountain bikers.[39]In 2013, BLM lands received an estimated 61.7 million recreational visitors.[40]
  • California Desert Conservation Area. The California Desert Conservation Area covers 25 million acres (100,000 km2) of land in southern California designated by Congress in 1976 by means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act.[41] BLM is charged with administering about 10 million acres (40,000 km2) of this fragile area with its potential for multiple uses in mind.[41]
  • Timberlands. The Bureau manages 55 million acres (220,000 km2) of forests and woodlands, including 11 million acres (45,000 km2) of commercial forest and 44 million acres (180,000 km2) of woodlands in 11 western states and Alaska.[42] 53 million acres (210,000 km2) are productive forests and woodlands on public domain lands and 2.4 million acres (9,700 km2) are on O&C lands in western Oregon.[42]
Calm Before the Storm: Fatigued BLM Firefighters taking a break after a fire in Oregon in 2008
  • Firefighting. Well in excess of 3,000 full-time equivalent firefighting personnel work for BLM.[43] The agency fought 2,573 fires on BLM-managed lands in fiscal year 2013.[40]
  • Mineral rights on Indian lands. As part of its trust responsibilities, the BLM provides technical advice for minerals operations on 56 million acres (230,000 km2) of Indian lands.[44]
  • Cadastral surveys. The BLM is the official record keeper for over 200 years' worth of cadastral survey records and plats as part of the Public Land Survey System.[45] In addition, the Bureau still completes numerous new surveys each year, mostly in Alaska, and conducts resurveys to restore obliterated or lost original surveys.[45]
  • Abandoned mines. BLM maintains an inventory of known abandoned mines on the lands it manages.[46] As of April 2014, the inventory contained nearly 46,000 sites and 85,000 other features.[46] Approximately 23% of the sites had either been remediated, had reclamation actions planned or underway, or did not require further action. The remaining sites require further investigation.[46] A 2008 Inspector General report alleges that BLM has for decades neglected the dangers represented by these abandoned mines.[47]
  • Energy corridors. Approximately 5,000 miles (8,000 km) of energy corridors for pipelines and transmission lines are located on BLM-managed lands.[48]
  • Helium. BLM operates the National Helium Reserve near Amarillo, Texas, a program begun in 1925 during the time of the ZeppelinWars.[49] Though the reserve had been set to be moved to private hands, it remains subject to oversight of the BLM under the provisions of the unanimously-passed Responsible Helium Administration and Stewardship Act of 2013.[49][50]
  • Revenue and fees. The BLM produces significant revenue for the United States budget.[51] In 2009, public lands were expected to generate an estimated $6.2 billion in revenues, mostly from energy development.[51] Nearly 43.5 percent of these funds are provided directly to states and counties to support roads, schools, and other community needs.[51]

National Landscape Conservation System[edit]

Established in 2000, the National Landscape Conservation System is overseen by the BLM.[52] The National Landscape Conservation System lands constitute just about 12% of the lands managed by the BLM.[52] Congress passed Title II of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11) to make the system a permanent part of the public lands protection system in the United States.[52][53] By designating these areas for conservation, the law directed the BLM to ensure these places are protected for future generations, similar to national parks and wildlife refuges.[52]
CategoryUnit TypeNumberBLM acresBLM miles
National Conservation LandsNational Monuments205,590,135 acres (22,622.47 km2)
National Conservation LandsNational Conservation Areas163,671,519 acres (14,858.11 km2)
National Conservation LandsAreas Similar to National Conservation Areas5436,164 acres (1,765.09 km2)
WildernessWilderness Areas2218,711,938 acres (35,255.96 km2)
WildernessWilderness Study Areas52812,760,472 acres (51,639.80 km2)
National Wild and Scenic RiversNational Wild and Scenic Rivers691,001,353 acres (4,052.33 km2)2,423 miles (3,899 km)
National Trails SystemNational Historic Trails135,078 miles (8,172 km)
National Trails SystemNational Scenic Trails5683 miles (1,099 km)
Totals877About 30 million acres (120,000 km2) (some units overlap)8,184 miles (13,171 km)
Source: BLM Resources and Statistics[54]

Law enforcement and security[edit]

Lightning-sparked wildfires are frequent occurrences on BLM land in Nevada.
The BLM, through its Office of Law Enforcement & Security, functions as a federal law enforcement agency of the United States Government. BLM law enforcement rangers and special agents receive their training through Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC).[55] Full-time staffing for these positions approaches 300.[56][57]
Uniformed rangers enforce laws and regulations governing BLM lands and resources.[58] As part of that mission, these BLM rangers carry firearms, defensive equipment, make arrests, execute search warrants, complete reports and testify in court.[58] They seek to establish a regular and recurring presence on a vast amount of public lands, roads and recreation sites. They focus on the protection of natural and cultural resources, other BLM employees and visitors.[58] Given the many locations of BLM public lands, these rangers use canines, helicopters, snowmobiles, dirt bikes and boats to perform their duties.[58]
By contrast BLM special agents are criminal investigators who plan and conduct investigations concerning possible violations of criminal and administrative provisions of the BLM and other statutes under the United States Code.[59] Special agents are normally plain clothes officers who carry concealed firearms, and other defensive equipment, make arrests, carry out complex criminal investigations, present cases for prosecution to local United States Attorneys and prepare investigative reports.[59] Criminal investigators occasionally conduct internal and civil claim investigations.[59]

Wild horse and burro program[edit]

Mustangs run across Tule Valley, Utah
The BLM manages free-roaming horses and burros on public lands in ten western states.[60] Though they are feral, the agency is obligated to protect them under the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 (WFRHBA).[60] As the horses have few natural predators, populations have grown substantially.[60] WFRHBA as enacted provides for the removal of excess animals; the destruction of lame, old, or sick animals; the private placement or adoption of excess animals; and even the destruction of healthy animals if range management required it.[61][62] In fact, the destruction of healthy or unhealthy horses has almost never occurred.[63] Pursuant to the Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978, the BLM has established 179 "herd management areas" (HMAs) covering 31.6 million acres (128,000 km2) acres where feral horses can be found on federal lands.[60]
In 1973, BLM began a pilot project on the Pryor Mountains Wild Horse Range known as the Adopt-A-Horse initiative.[64] The program took advantage of provisions in the WFRHBA to allow private "qualified" individuals to "adopt" as many horses as they wanted if they could show that they could provide adequate care for the animals.[65] At the time, title to the horses remained permanently with the federal government.[62] The pilot project was so successful that BLM allowed it to go nationwide in 1976.[64] The Adopt-a-Horse program quickly became the primary method of removing excess feral horses from BLM land given the lack of other viable methods.[65] The BLM also uses limited amounts of contraceptives in the herd, in the form of PZP vaccinations; advocates say that additional use of these vaccines would help to diminish the excess number of horses currently under BLM management.[66]
Despite the early successes of the adoption program, the BLM has struggled to maintain acceptable herd levels, as without natural predators, herd sizes can double every four years.[60] As of 2014, there were more than 49,000 horses and burros on BLM-managed land, exceeding the BLM's estimated "appropriate management level" (AML) by almost 22,500.[60]

Renewable energy[edit]

Aerial photograph of Ivanpah Solar Power Facility located on BLM-managed land in the Mohave Desert
In 2009, BLM opened Renewable Energy Coordination Offices in order to approve and oversee wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal projects on BLM-managed lands.[48] The offices were located in the four states where energy companies had shown the greatest interest in renewable energy development: ArizonaCaliforniaNevada, and Wyoming.[48]
  • Solar energy. In 2010, BLM approved the first utility-scale solar energy projects on public land.[67] As of 2014, 70 solar energy projects covering 560,000 acres (2,300 km2) had been proposed on public lands managed by BLM primarily located in ArizonaCalifornia, and Nevada.[68] To date, it has approved 29 projects that have the potential to generate 8,786 megawatts of renewable energy or enough energy to power roughly 2.6 million homes.[68] The projects range in size from a 45-megawatt photovoltaic system on 422 acres (171 ha) to a 1,000-megawatt parabolic trough system on 7,025 acres (2,843 ha).[68]
  • Wind energy. BLM manages 20.6 million acres (83,000 km2) of public lands with wind potential.[69] It has authorized 39 wind energy development projects with a total approved capacity of 5,557 megawatts or enough to supply the power needs of over 1.5 million homes.[70] In addition, BLM has authorized over 100 wind energy testing sites.[71]
  • Geothermal energy. BLM manages 59 geothermal leases in producing status, with a total capacity of 1,500 megawatts.[72] This amounts to over 40 percent of the geothermal energy capacity in the United States.[72]
  • Biomass and bioenergy. Its large portfolio of productive timberlands leaves BLM with woody biomass among its line of forest products.[73] The biomass is composed of "smaller diameter materials" and other debris that result from timber production and forest management.[73] Though the use of these materials as a renewable resource is nascent, the agency is engaged in pilot projects to increase the use of its biomass supplies in bioenergy programs.[73]