Sunday, February 28, 2016

Hosting Mr. Ron Bailey On the Book The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-first Century 1st Edition

NIKE said . . . . . ,
I say that the Secret of the Universe is Choice!!

Bob Zadek Host
Author Ronald Bailey is Mr. Zadeks' Guest today 2/28/2016
The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century 1st Edition

available at
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Bob Zadek is the host of The Bob Zadek Show, a Libertarian talk show broadcast live on Talk 910 KKSF, every Sunday at 9am.
Bob talks about the issues that affect our lives on a daily basis from a purely Libertarian standpoint. He believes in small government, less taxes and greater personal freedom.
Bob was inspired to become politically active after watching an interview with Joseph Ellis, an historian who had just written “Passionate Sage: An Account of John Adams’ Retirement Years.” Adams achieved so much during his career,  serving two terms as a Vice President, one term as President and playing a leading role in the adoption pof the Declaration of Independence.  Bob idealizes Adams for the work he continued to do for the revolution until his retirement. While watching the Ellis interview, Bob discovered his love for American ideals. He feels passion for the freedoms created in the Constitution and The Bill of Rights; what he refers to as “The Original America.” He believes that our system of government must recognize the successes of the past in order to live up to the dreams and ideals of the founding fathers.  To borrow a phrase from law professor and Constitutional scholar Randy Barnett, Bob supports “Restoring the Lost Constitution.”
It was not just Revolutionary history that influenced Bob’s personal philosophy. Ayn Rand’s epic novel “Atlas Shrugged” describes a frightening scenario in which all business has been nationalized, and its capitalistic saviors are oppressed.  That is a bit too close to home in 21st century America for Bob’s comfort.  
Bob believes that America has lost its way. The country’s first principles are economic and social freedom, republicanism, the rule of law, and liberty.  Our founders were correct about their approach to government as were John Locke, Adam Smith and the other great political philosophers who influenced them.  America cannot and does not need to be reinvented. Bob believes we must take thebest of our founding principles and work from them because a country without principles is just a land mass.
Bob has been practicing finance law for 50 years, is listed in “The Best Lawyers In America” and has been awarded the highest rating for Ethical Standards and Legal Ability by Peer Reviewed Martindale Hubbell.  He holds a law degree and a Master’s degree in Law from NYU School of Law and is a Charter Fellow in the American College of Commercial Finance Lawyers, Past President of the Association of Commercial Finance Attorneys, Past Chair of the 1,500 member Commercial Finance Committee of the Business Law Section of the American Bar Association, and Past Chair of the California State Bar UCC Committee.
Bob has been retained as an expert witness in more than 25 cases dealing with finance law. As an entrepreneur, he created and now manages Lenders Funding LLC, which makes and participates in loans to small business.
Bob’s favorite quote is from John Locke: “The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom”.
Bob’s passions are American history, entrepreneurism, Libertarianism and his number one fan and significant other Anne.
*At 6th & Clement in San Francisco, California!! This store has been there for as long as I can remember and I have enjoyed just walking in and not being stressed by the environment of by, by, by.

*Green Apple Books
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Chronicle Or Examiner??

Hazel Miner

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hazel Dulcie Miner
Hazel Miner
Hazel Miner. Courtesy: Center (N.D.) Republican.
BornApril 11, 1904
SangerOliver CountyNorth Dakota
DiedMarch 16, 1920 (aged 15)
CenterOliver CountyNorth Dakota
Cause of deathHypothermia resulting from exposure to cold
Resting placeCenter Community Cemetery,CenterOliver CountyNorth Dakota[1]
47.11170°N 101.31029°W(approximate)
OccupationOne-room school student
Known forDied protecting siblings from the1920 North Dakota blizzard
  • William Albert Miner
  • Blanche (née Steele) Miner
  • Zelda (sister)
  • Emmet (brother)
  • Myrdith (sister)
  • Howard (brother)
Hazel Dulcie Miner (April 11, 1904 – March 16, 1920), a student at a rural Great Plains one-room school, died while protecting her 10-year-old brother, Emmet, and 8-year-old sister, Myrdith, from the spring blizzard of 1920 in CenterOliver CountyNorth Dakota.[3]
After her death, she became a national American heroine. Her actions were celebrated in a folk ballad and were published in many newspaper and magazine articles in the subsequent decades.

Life and family[edit]

Hazel was the 15-year-old daughter of William Albert Miner, a farmer, and his wife, the former Blanche Steele, both originally ofIowa. Hazel's sisters and brothers were Zelda, 21; Emmet, 10; Myrdith, 8; and Howard, 5.[4] Hazel was an eighth grade student at aone-room school, the same attended by Emmet and Myrdith.[5] The Oliver County register of deeds, whose daughter had played with Hazel, recalled, "Kind of a quiet girl she was," and described her as "sort of motherly, for one so young."[6] Her father considered her highly dependable.[7]:124 Her obituary described her as "quiet and loving," with a "sunny, cheerful nature" and having a liking for children. Hazel had planned to start high school in Bismarck, North Dakota that fall.[5]

Death in the blizzard[edit]

The Miner children lose their way[edit]

On March 15, 1920, the first day of the blizzard, the school dismissed its students early to enable them to go home before the storm arrived.[6] Many of the students, like the Miner children, were used to driving to and from school with a horse and buggy, but the school teacher had a rule that no child was permitted to drive home in bad weather without permission from a parent.[7]:124 William Miner, who was worried about the blizzard conditions, rode the two miles to the school on a saddle horse to escort his children home.
At about one o'clock in the afternoon, at the school, Miner hitched the children's horse, "Old Maude," to their light sleigh and told Hazel to wait while he went back to the school's barn to get his horse. Hazel wasn't strong enough to keep the horse from heading out into the blizzard before her father came back from the barn.[5][4] William Miner searched for his children, but soon realized they must have gotten lost and went home to organize a search party. Via telephone, farm families from the surrounding countryside summoned men to join the search for the missing Miner children.[8]
Even though she was familiar with the road, Hazel quickly became disoriented due to the blinding, blowing white snow, which made it impossible to see more than a few feet in front of her. She was dressed in warm coat, hat, gloves and sturdy, one-buckle overshoes, but the clothing was insufficient protection against the wind and freezing temperatures, and her hands and feet became numb in the cold. When the sleigh hit a coulee, Hazel slid from the sleigh into waist-deep, mushy snow. She said, "Oh, my! I am wet clear to the waist and my shoes are full of water," her brother recalled later.[5] Her prolonged exposure virtually guaranteed eventual severe hypothermia.
The horse's harness slipped and Hazel had to readjust it. She led the horse forward through the blizzard, but found she had lost sight of the road. There were few landmarks on the prairie to guide the children.[5][6]

Shelter of last resort[edit]

The children continued traveling and growing more tired and cold. Then the sleigh again hit an obstruction and tipped over, throwing Hazel over the dashboard into the snow. Hazel, Emmet, and Myrdith tried to push the sleigh upright, but were not strong enough to lift it, even with all three pushing at once. Using the overturned sleigh as a shelter, Hazel spread two blankets, told Emmet and Myrdith to lie down, and placed a third blanket atop them. The children tried to keep moving to stay warm. Hazel huddled beside her brother and sister and used her body heat to warm them. She told them stories to keep them awake.[6] The children sang all four verses of "America the Beautiful," a song they had sung during opening exercises at the country school that morning, and repeated the Lord's Prayer. Hazel advised her siblings, "Remember, you mustn't go to sleep — even if I do. Promise me you won't, no matter how sleepy you get. Keep each other awake! Promise?" Her brother and sister promised.[7]:128
Throughout the night, the children could hear a dog barking somewhere nearby, but no one came to their aid.[9] As the night wore on, Hazel talked less and less, until she finally became silent.[6]
Her brother Emmet later recalled the blizzard for an article in the March 15, 1963 issue of The Bismarck (N.D.) Tribune:
The robe kept blowing down and Hazel kept pulling it up until she got so she couldn't put it up any more. Then she covered us up with the robe and lay down on top of it. I told Hazel to get under the covers too, but she said she had to keep us children warm, and she wouldn't do it ... I tried to get out to put the cover over Hazel, but I could not move because she was lying on the cover. The snow would get in around our feet, we couldn't move them, then Hazel would break the crust for us. After awhile she could not break the crust anymore, she just lay still and groaned. I thought she must be dead, then I kept talking to Myrdith so she wouldn't go to sleep.[5]

Search and rescue[edit]

A search party of more than thirty men looked for the children throughout the afternoon and evening. They had to give up when it grew dark, but set out again the next morning.[6]When they finally found the children, it was two o'clock in the afternoon on March 16, twenty-five hours since the children had first set out from the school house. The overturned sleigh, with the horse still hitched up to it, was resting in a coulee two miles south of the school. "With breathless haste we harried to the rig and will never forget the sight that met our eyes," one of the men reported. The searchers found the rigid Hazel lying over her siblings, covering them with her body. Her coat, which she had unbuttoned, was spread over the bodies of the two younger children and her arms were stretched out over them. Beneath her, still alive, were Emmet and Myrdith. "Maude," the old horse, was standing beside the overturned sled, also still alive. If the horse had moved, the three children would have been tipped into the snow.[5][7]:129
They took the three children to the home of William Starck, a neighbor, for immediate care.[5] Starck's daughter, Anna Starck Benjamin, who was 4½ years old at the time, remembered "the sound of Hazel's outstretched arms as they brushed against the furniture as they brought her into the house, and took her into my parents' bedroom. The crackling sound as that of frozen laundry brought in off the clothes line in winter. Then I remember the crying, so much crying."[5] They worked over Hazel for hours, trying to revive her, but without success. Hazel's mother, Blanche, was brought to the Starck house after the searchers found the children and sat in a chair, rocking back and forth, while they tended to the three children. Throughout the night when the children were missing, she had been kept company by neighbors. At one point, she drifted off to sleep, and said later that her daughter had come to her in a dream. In the dream, Hazel said, "I was cold, Mama, but I'm not anymore."[5]
At Hazel's funeral, the minister preached a sermon on the Christian Bible verse John 15:13: "Greater love hath no man that he lay down his life for his friend," and said, "Here and there are occasionally people who by their acts and lives endeavor to imitate Him."[5]
Hazel was one of 34 people who died during the blizzard, which lasted three days.[5]


This memorial to Hazel Miner was installed in 1936 outside the Oliver County Courthouse by former governor L.B. Hanna. Courtesy: Center (N.D.) Republican.
Hazel became a posthumous heroine after her story became known. On January 15, 1921, an article in The North Dakota Children's Home Finder appeared about how "this guardian angel of the prairies, covered with a thick sheet of ice, gave up her own life to save her brother and sister." [5] The North Dakota Children's Home Society wanted to use publicity about Hazel's story to raise money to build an orphanage for children in the state. A memorial committee was established in Center and talked of naming a new hospital in Hazel's honor, but some months later her parents said they wanted a memorial statue erected instead. Children across the state collected money to pay for a memorial.[5]
Emmet and Myrdith were interviewed by various North Dakota newspapers numerous times in the years following the blizzard and many news articles were written about Hazel.[3] The story eventually attracted national attention. In 1952 the Ford Motor Companycommissioned two paintings of scenes from the story by North Dakota artist Elmer Halvorson. The paintings and an article about Hazel Miner were published in the February 1953 edition of the Ford Times.[10]
In recent years, a folk ballad entitled The Story of Hazel Miner was written by folk artist Chuck Suchy of Mandan, North Dakota.[11][12] The song was recorded on Suchy's Much to Share (1986) cassette and on his Dancing Dakota (1989) cassette. In the song, recalling Hazel's outstretched arms, Suchy sings of "wings on the snow, a fate not chose, morning finds a dove so froze." But "in warmth below, her love survived."[11][12]
The May 30, 2002 centennial issue of the Center (N.D.) Republican featured a story about "Hazel Miner, Angel of the Prairies."[5] The story was also recounted in Joe Wheeler's 2002 anthology Everyday Heroes: Inspiring Stories of Ordinary People Who Made a Difference.[7]
Gothic-style granite monument honoring Hazel's memory was erected in front of the Oliver County Courthouse in 1936, sixteen years after her death, by former North Dakota governor L. B. Hanna.[2][6] The stone reads "In memory of Hazel Miner. To the dead a tribute, to the living a memory, to posterity an inspiration." Hazel's grave can be found in the Center Community Cemetery in Oliver County.[1][6]
Today the story of Hazel and her actions during the 1920 blizzard are also studied by some students in North Dakota as part of a North Dakota history class.[13] [14]

Original Letter Of Recommendation Still In Hand From Nationwide Advertising Specialty Co. While The Men Toll Value Said File Cabinets & Home Grown!! Thank You So Much For My Mother's Nickname Taught^See!!

I remember this Purr^Pull favorite on the horse that I trailer this Great to the best of Mans field,
well deep in To that gate from a Tractor supply,
the ride the Photographs I still have in the memory of Real,
cool jets to know that a bottle in a wonder is the hugs I cent today.

All the way to California we traveled the Bell,
range Thought touch chin classic 'Cadillac Ranch' in a press Caught,
nigh the Minute Man is a feather in this KAP,
he wrote with the incredible and an Artist of the Pen!!

Struck by Hymn,
the salts with no approve,
just the gentle know of love and flow gave rise to Men^shin at lens,
blinking back a cup Pole tears my cheeks are in the Smiles,
for as the Wire is in a Rare so is the Man of True Duster Role and that just Makes this Manna for the sourdough on Seed!!

Now, now those that are not Fam ill lee Fa Mill yore,
be shine^knee and the ab Bull will Cane this Sugar Tweeze,
for the gift of Prose and gear is the fact that Trains have days to IM^brace the Far^A^Way in Oper^eh^Shin lathe,
a shingle for the paid.

Jack Russell Terriers On Parkfield Road Cannot Be Forgotten 'Cause Nature Roars And Alfalfa Baled!!

On Stile off the Bill Maher Real Time eh Serd on Urban Dictionary TOP DEFINITION    
To humiliate someone in a grand fashion. See served
You suckas are just mad, 'cause you just got serd.
by Serway Faughn June 04, 2005 sat in the File seal,
as that blundstone Said that Press^a^Dent^See can^a^Date had Field^dead seek,
quoting One Week.

[a big hug goes to Mark ruff^a^lo From Mi sing a long as I Rook]

How shell Bee??,
the breeze Quarters dime??,
a slot.

These Or^currs have Per^duh??,
the Claws,
scratch Ped^dust^Tree^Inn??,
from Sea to Shy^Kneeing Stride on that Call of the Hulk for the Foot Note Mine!!

Drill or Factor,
Screw or Bit,
reins or Tiers,
speak or Spelt,
*richter scale on the E! Deed??,
what say slot??

*Richter magnitude scale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Earthquake Richter Scale.jpg
The Richter magnitude scale (also Richter scale) assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an earthquake. The Richter scale, developed in the 1930s, is a base-10 logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude as the logarithm of the ratio of theamplitude of the seismic waves to an arbitrary, minor amplitude.
As measured with a seismometer, an earthquake that registers 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times that of an earthquake that registered 4.0, and thus corresponds to a release of energy 31.6 times that released by the lesser earthquake.[1] The Richter scale was succeeded in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale. This is now the scale used by the United States Geological Survey to estimate magnitudes for all modern large earthquakes.[2]


In 1935, the seismologists Charles Francis Richter and Beno Gutenberg, of the California Institute of Technology, developed the (future) Richter magnitude scale, specifically for measuring earthquakes in a given area of study in California, as recorded and measured with the Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph. Originally, Richter reported mathematical values to the nearest quarter of a unit, but the values later were reported with one decimal place; the local magnitude scale compared the magnitudes of different earthquakes.[1] Richter derived his earthquake-magnitude scale from the apparent magnitude scale used to measure the brightness of stars.[3]
Richter established a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum, combined horizontal displacement of 1.0 µm (0.00004 in.) on a seismogram recorded with a Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph 100 km (62 mi.) from the earthquake epicenter. That fixed measure was chosen to avoid negative values for magnitude, given that the slightest earthquakes that could be recorded and located at the time were around magnitude 3.0. The Richter magnitude scale itself has no lower limit, and contemporary seismometers can register, record, and measure earthquakes with negative magnitudes.
M_\text{L} (local magnitude) was not designed to be applied to data with distances to the hypocenter of the earthquake that were greater than 600 km (373 mi.).[2] For national and local seismological observatories, the standard magnitude scale in the 21st century is still M_\text{L}. This scale saturates[clarification needed] at around M_\text{L} = 7,[4] because the high frequency waves recorded locally have wavelengths shorter than the rupture lengths[clarification needed] of large earthquakes.
Later, to express the size of earthquakes around the planet, Gutenberg and Richter developed a surface wave magnitude scale (M_\text{s}) and a body wave magnitude scale (M_\text{b}).[5] These are types of waves that are recorded at teleseismic distances. The two scales were adjusted such that they were consistent with the M_\text{L}scale. That adjustment succeeded better with the M_\text{s} scale than with the M_\text{b} scale. Each scale saturates when the earthquake is greater than magnitude 8.0.
Because of this, researchers in the 1970s developed the moment magnitude scale (M_\text{w}). The older magnitude-scales were superseded by methods for calculating the seismic moment, from which was derived the moment magnitude scale.
About the origins of the Richter magnitude scale, C.F. Richter said:
I found a [1928] paper by Professor K. Wadati of Japan in which he compared large earthquakes by plotting the maximum ground motion against [the] distance to the epicenter. I tried a similar procedure for our stations, but the range between the largest and smallest magnitudes seemed unmanageably large. Dr. Beno Gutenberg then made the natural suggestion to plot the amplitudes logarithmically. I was lucky, because logarithmic plots are a device of the devil.


The Richter scale was defined in 1935 for particular circumstances and instruments; the particular circumstances refer to it being defined for Southern California and "implicitly incorporates the attenuative properties of Southern California crust and mantle."[6] The particular instrument used would become saturated by strong earthquakes and unable to record high values. The scale was replaced in the 1970s by the moment magnitude scale (MMS); for earthquakes adequately measured by the Richter scale, numerical values are approximately the same. Although values measured for earthquakes now are M_w (MMS), they are frequently reported by the press as Richter values, even for earthquakes of magnitude over 8, when the Richter scale becomes meaningless. Anything above 5 is classified as a risk by the USGS.[citation needed]
The Richter and MMS scales measure the energy released by an earthquake; another scale, the Mercalli intensity scale, classifies earthquakes by their effects, from detectable by instruments but not noticeable, to catastrophic. The energy and effects are not necessarily strongly correlated; a shallow earthquake in a populated area with soil of certain types can be far more intense in effects than a much more energetic deep earthquake in an isolated area.
Several scales have historically been described as the "Richter scale", especially the local magnitude M_\text{L} and the surface wave M_\text{s} scale. In addition, the body wave magnitude,m_\text{b}, and the moment magnitudeM_\text{w}, abbreviated MMS, have been widely used for decades. A couple of new techniques to measure magnitude are in the development stage by seismologists.
All magnitude scales have been designed to give numerically similar results. This goal has been achieved well for M_\text{L}M_\text{s}, and M_\text{w}.[7][8] The m_\text{b} scale gives somewhat different values than the other scales. The reason for so many different ways to measure the same thing is that at different distances, for different hypocentral depths, and for different earthquake sizes, the amplitudes of different types of elastic waves must be measured.
M_\text{L} is the scale used for the majority of earthquakes reported (tens of thousands) by local and regional seismological observatories. For large earthquakes worldwide, the moment magnitude scale (MMS) is most common, although M_\text{s} is also reported frequently.
The seismic momentM_o, is proportional to the area of the rupture times the average slip that took place in the earthquake, thus it measures the physical size of the event. M_\text{w}is derived from it empirically as a quantity without units, just a number designed to conform to the M_\text{s} scale.[9] A spectral analysis is required to obtain M_o, whereas the other magnitudes are derived from a simple measurement of the amplitude of a specifically defined wave.
All scales, except M_\text{w}, saturate for large earthquakes, meaning they are based on the amplitudes of waves which have a wavelength shorter than the rupture length of the earthquakes. These short waves (high frequency waves) are too short a yardstick to measure the extent of the event. The resulting effective upper limit of measurement for M_Lis about 7[4] and about 8.5[4] for M_\text{s}.[10]
New techniques to avoid the saturation problem and to measure magnitudes rapidly for very large earthquakes are being developed. One of these is based on the long period P-wave;[11] the other is based on a recently discovered channel wave.[12]
The energy release of an earthquake,[13] which closely correlates to its destructive power, scales with the 32 power of the shaking amplitude. Thus, a difference in magnitude of 1.0 is equivalent to a factor of 31.6 (=({10^{1.0}})^{(3/2)}) in the energy released; a difference in magnitude of 2.0 is equivalent to a factor of 1000 (=({10^{2.0}})^{(3/2)} ) in the energy released.[14] The elastic energy radiated is best derived from an integration of the radiated spectrum, but an estimate can be based on m_\text{b} because most energy is carried by the high frequency waves.

Richter magnitudes[edit]

Earthquake severity.jpg
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs (adjustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake). The original formula is:[15]
M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A - \log_{10} A_\mathrm{0}(\delta) = \log_{10} [A / A_\mathrm{0}(\delta)],\
where A is the maximum excursion of the Wood-Anderson seismograph, the empirical function A0 depends only on the epicentral distanceof the station, \delta. In practice, readings from all observing stations are averaged after adjustment with station-specific corrections to obtain the M_\text{L} value.
Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; in terms of energy, each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about 31.6 times the amount of energy released, and each increase of 0.2 corresponds to a doubling of the energy released.
Events with magnitudes greater than 4.5 are strong enough to be recorded by a seismograph anywhere in the world, so long as its sensors are not located in the earthquake'sshadow.
The following describes the typical effects of earthquakes of various magnitudes near the epicenter. The values are typical only. They should be taken with extreme caution, since intensity and thus ground effects depend not only on the magnitude, but also on the distance to the epicenter, the depth of the earthquake's focus beneath the epicenter, the location of the epicenter and geological conditions (certain terrains can amplify seismic signals).
MagnitudeDescriptionMercalli intensityAverage earthquake effectsAverage frequency of occurrence (estimated)
Less than 2.0MicroIMicroearthquakes, not felt, or felt rarely. Recorded by seismographs.[16]Continual/several million per year
2.0–2.9MinorI to IIFelt slightly by some people. No damage to buildings.Over one million per year
3.0–3.9II to IVOften felt by people, but very rarely causes damage. Shaking of indoor objects can be noticeable.Over 100,000 per year
4.0–4.9LightIV to VINoticeable shaking of indoor objects and rattling noises. Felt by most people in the affected area. Slightly felt outside. Generally causes none to minimal damage. Moderate to significant damage very unlikely. Some objects may fall off shelves or be knocked over.10,000 to 15,000 per year
5.0–5.9ModerateVI to VIIICan cause damage of varying severity to poorly constructed buildings. At most, none to slight damage to all other buildings. Felt by everyone.1,000 to 1,500 per year
6.0–6.9StrongVII to XDamage to a moderate number of well-built structures in populated areas. Earthquake-resistant structures survive with slight to moderate damage. Poorly designed structures receive moderate to severe damage. Felt in wider areas; up to hundreds of miles/kilometers from the epicenter. Strong to violent shaking in epicentral area.100 to 150 per year
7.0–7.9MajorVIII or greater[17]Causes damage to most buildings, some to partially or completely collapse or receive severe damage. Well-designed structures are likely to receive damage. Felt across great distances with major damage mostly limited to 250 km from epicenter.10 to 20 per year
8.0–8.9GreatMajor damage to buildings, structures likely to be destroyed. Will cause moderate to heavy damage to sturdy or earthquake-resistant buildings. Damaging in large areas. Felt in extremely large regions.One per year
9.0 and greaterAt or near total destruction - severe damage or collapse to all buildings. Heavy damage and shaking extends to distant locations. Permanent changes in ground topography.One per 10 to 50 years
(Based on U.S. Geological Survey documents.)[18]
The intensity and death toll depend on several factors (earthquake depth, epicenter location, population density, to name a few) and can vary widely.
Minor earthquakes occur every day and hour. On the other hand, great earthquakes occur once a year, on average. The largest recorded earthquake was the Great Chilean earthquake of May 22, 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale.[19] The larger the magnitude, the less frequent the earthquake happens.
Beyond 9.5, while extremely strong earthquakes are theoretically possible, the energies involved rapidly make such earthquakes on Earth effectively impossible without an extremely destructive source of external energy. For example, the asteroid impact that created the Chicxulub crater and caused the mass extinction that may have killed the dinosaurs has been estimated as causing a magnitude 13 earthquake (see below), while a magnitude 15 earthquake could destroy the Earth completely. Seismologist Susan Hough has suggested that 10 may represent a very approximate upper limit, as the effect if the largest known continuous belt of faults ruptured together (along the Pacific coast of the Americas).[20]

Energy release equivalents[edit]

The following table lists the approximate energy equivalents in terms of TNT explosive force – though note that the earthquake energy is released underground rather than overground.[21] Most energy from an earthquake is not transmitted to and through the surface; instead, it dissipates into the crust and other subsurface structures. In contrast, a small atomic bomb blast (see nuclear weapon yield) will not, it will simply cause light shaking of indoor items, since its energy is released above ground.
Approximate magnitudeApproximate TNT equivalent for
seismic energy yield
Joule equivalentExample
0.015 g63 kJ
0.230 g130 kJLarge hand grenade
1.52.7 kg11 MJSeismic impact of typical small construction blast
2.121 kg89 MJWest fertilizer plant explosion[22]
3.0480 kg2.0 GJOklahoma City bombing, 1995
3.52.7 metric tons11 GJPEPCON fuel plant explosion, Henderson, Nevada, 1988
3.879.5 metric tons40 GJExplosion at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 1986
3.9111 metric tons46 GJMassive Ordnance Air Blast bomb
6.015 kilotons63 TJApproximate yield of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (~16 kt)
7.910.7 megatons45 PJTunguska event
8.3550 megatons210 PJTsar Bomba—Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested. Most of the energy was dissipated in the atmosphere. The seismic shock was estimated at 5.0–5.2[23]
9.15800 megatons3.3 EJToba eruption 75,000 years ago; among the largest known volcanic events.[24]
13.0100 teratons420 ZJYucatán Peninsula impact (creating Chicxulub crater) 65 Ma ago (108 megatons; over 4×1029 ergs = 400 ZJ).[25][26][27][28][29]

Magnitude empirical formulae[edit]

These formulae are an alternative method to calculate Richter magnitude instead of using Richter correlation tables based on Richter standard seismic event (M_\mathrm{L}=0, A=0.001mm, D=100 km).
The Lillie empirical formula:
M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10}A - 2.48+ 2.76\log_{10}\Delta
  • A is the amplitude (maximum ground displacement) of the P-wave, in micrometers, measured at 0.8 Hz.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance, in km.
For distance less than 200 km:
M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A + 1.6\log_{10} D - 0.15
For distance between 200 km and 600 km:
M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A + 3.0\log_{10} D - 3.38
where A is seismograph signal amplitude in mm, D distance in km.
The Bisztricsany (1958) empirical formula for epicentral distances between 4˚ to 160˚:
M_\mathrm{L} = 2.92 + 2.25 \log_{10} (\tau) - 0.001 \Delta^{\circ}
  • M_\mathrm{L} is magnitude (mainly in the range of 5 to 8)
  • \tau is the duration of the surface wave in seconds
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in degrees.
The Tsumura empirical formula:
M_\mathrm{L} = -2.53 + 2.85 \log_{10} (F-P) + 0.0014 \Delta^{\circ}
  • M_\mathrm{L} is the magnitude (mainly in the range of 3 to 5).
  • F-P is the total duration of oscillation in seconds.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in kilometers.
The Tsuboi, University of Tokyo, empirical formula:
M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10}A + 1.73\log_{10}\Delta - 0.83
  • M_\mathrm{L} is the magnitude.
  • A is the amplitude in um.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in kilometers.