Thursday, January 14, 2016

The Fore Of Berth What's A Trace??

Dim speak to the Microphone of the lace,
a berk Kit has brought to state the Oil of the rice,
drains on the sheet to the Clothes now dice,
scrabble the firm to bored on the plume.

Reason cast to under face as the price of goods and grates,
the arm has trouser`d the pistol as the flower of the laid,
in long past of length to stolen on the took,
this is the exact stick of the ALM to the Poe beast!!

Treated by the World as a globe Snowed by green gees,
found to spread contagion as deep 'C's',
grades took the bast and brains ate the sync,
at this shim of the skeet People have grown to the least.

Now that the rent has been to paid by the Sands,
it is the Head on the coin in my personal thunder bank at the core,
a Thirteen count on the Ka tune of the Ton,
it is the ankle walk to distant my ample from this bow.

Reference in the pedestrian ignore as the blink,
be self drive to know that bridles rock the road,
crowds of pants have lost skirt to staff in bells,
that means the men have traveled the rent to further lied.

Tombs to the History graves on the Yard,
be of the Clock not the Calendar its torn,
release on be firm for ground is bubbled dirt,
men have soiled britches and not deepened gut to score!!

Heave with nothing as the intestinal will pop a grab,
be muscle with re-Verse to comprehend this tract,
for as the final heard has heard that out of Priest,
the sand speaks the ditch to the quick liquid fact shin racked.

Just to that now on the second time of spin,
it is 7:34 PM on the West Coast of this bean,
resistance is also electricity to form,
do not fall to bankers on the thermal under pour.

Paved by the scenewalks to collar of the pea,
pods have revealed within the side to what came across as logged,
as should the say a strongs tent would value measure bridge,
to tack closer to the depth of this country on The Blues.

Ghost of long death breast the History is the boon,
I hear the thump of boar,
horns are sheep the Ram is bleat and that makes Moose the Giant graeae,
be look to the direction its the glacier buy the jade.

The Earth Of Stand Is The Fact

So breathe this long breath to sure the vent of the mountain on her grain in the atmosphere of pi,
as the owl Fa of the law deep divide of the Creek,
look to the skunk and ask did the Deer ant lure??,
was that the spied??,
shall that clay of snot strip the clothes to skin and Hide??

Shackled to the Turf while the Ages hem to a spurn`d the Special is the learn,
the leans are the additional optics of the Journey to self it Out on the language of lands,
in mathematics the Tune would Tongue to hames the Harness eternity`d,
grant that more on the found of the luck for each strike is not of solid ground,
for the More on the Scene its the strict time to halted by the hose,
fragment to bean the Mills and the corn of Wheats,
swaying as the Rye gentles my sleep to Stars of the Knights I rename to the type`d,
theme to that as the Orion is minor piece to a galaxy of rides.

How the stream of wonder embraces my hugs with memorized lugs,
each vast off the wheel on these chore of worlds lies.

Time on the hoof to the feet of the side,
be of the sound that knows of the grub,
it is the Armor of the beetle to bright a tug.

Humanity limp`d the process to kill the Feat,
ask the passing fluster off to speak of the fee male punned as the right of left on stun,
each words maker is the tease that has provided this long list purr of a clear defining diction of signed.

What Is It Exactly In And On The Long Ton To Have To Count On A Word??

Latin conjugation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Latin verbs have four main patterns of conjugation. As in a number of other languages, most Latin verbs have an active voice and a passive voice. There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs with a perfect form but present meaning). Sometimes the verbs of the third conjugation with a present stem on -ǐ (short i) are regarded as a separate pattern of conjugation, and are called the fifth conjugation, or third-io conjugation.
Conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms, or principal parts. It may be affected by personnumbergendertensemood,voice or other language-specific factors.
In a dictionary, Latin verbs are always listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:
  1. the first person singular of the present indicative active
  2. the present infinitive active
  3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
  4. the supine or, in some texts, the perfect passive participle, which are nearly always identical. Texts that commonly list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs. Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.
For simple verb paradigms, see the appendix pages for first conjugationsecond conjugationthird conjugation, and fourth conjugation.

Properties [edit]

The Latin verbs have the following properties:


There are four conjugations in Latin which define patterns of verb inflection. However the grouping in conjugations is based solely on the behaviour of the verb in the present system, and the stems for other forms cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of Latin verbal forms. Most Latin verbs belong to one of the four verb conjugations, though some, like esse (to be), do not.

First conjugation[edit]

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:
  • perfect has the suffix –āvī. The majority of first-conjugation verbs adhere to this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
    • portōportāreportāvīportātum, "to carry, to bring";
    • amōamāreamāvīamātum, "to love, to be fond of";
  • perfect has the suffix –uī, for example:
    • secōsecāresecuīsectum, "to cut, to divide";
    • fricōfricārefricuīfrictum, "to rub";
    • vetōvetārevetuīvetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
  • perfect has the suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
    • lavōlavārelāvīlautum, "to wash, to bathe";
    • iuvōiuvāreiūvīiūtum, "to help, to assist";
  • perfect is reduplicated, for example:
    • stōstārestetīstatum, "to stand";
    • darededīdatum, "to give, to bestow"; this verb is irregular.

Second conjugation[edit]

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:
  • perfect has the suffix –uī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus (to frighten, to deter)
    • doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus (to teach, to instruct)
    • teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus (to hold, to keep)
  • perfect has the suffix –ēvī. Examples:
    • dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētus (to destroy, to efface)
    • cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citus (to arouse, to stir)
  • perfect has the suffix –sī (which combines with a preceding c or g to –xī). Examples:
    • augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus (to increase, to enlarge)
    • iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus (to order, to bid)
  • perfect is reduplicated with –ī. Examples:
    • mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsus (to bite, to nip)
    • spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsus (to vow, to promise)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus (to see, to notice)
    • foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtus (to caress, to cherish)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and no perfect passive participle. Examples:
    • strīdeō, strīdere, strīdī (to hiss, to creak)
    • ferveō, fervēre, fervī (sometimes fervuī) (to boil, to seethe)

Third conjugation[edit]

The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between ei, and u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in an –ere in the present active infinitive. There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:
  • perfect has suffix –sī (–xī when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus (to pluck, to select)
    • trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus (to drag, to draw)
    • gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus (to wear, to bear)
    • flectō, flectere, flexī, flexus (to bend, to twist)
  • perfect is reduplicated with suffix –ī. Examples:
    • currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus (to run, to race)
    • caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus (to kill, to slay)
    • tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus (to touch, to hit)
    • pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus (to beat, to drive away)
  • perfect has suffix -vī. Examples:
    • petō, petere, petīvī, petītus (to seek, to attack)
    • linō, linere, līvī, lītus (to smear, to befoul)
    • serō, serere, sēvī, satus (to sow, to plant)
    • terō, terere, trīvī, trītus (to rub, to wear out)
    • sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātus (to spread, to stretch out)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • agō, agere, ēgī, āctus (to do, to drive)
    • legō, legere, lēgī, lēctus (to collect, to read)
    • emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptus (to buy, to purchase)
    • vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus (to conquer, to master)
    • fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus (to pour, to utter)
  • perfect has suffix –ī only. Examples:
    • īcō, īcere, īcī, īctus (to strike, to smite)
    • vertō, vertere, vertī, versus (to turn, to alter)
    • vīsō, vīsere, vīsī, vīsus (to visit)
  • perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
    • metō, metere, messuī, messus (to reap, to harvest)
    • vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitus (to vomit)
    • colō, colere, coluī, cultus (to cultivate, to till)
    • texō, texere, texuī, textus (to weave, to plait)
    • gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus (to beget, to cause)
  • present tense stem has suffix –u. Examples:
    • minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtus (to lessen, to diminish)
    • ruō, ruere, ruī, rutus (to collapse, to hurl down)
    • struō, struere, strūxī, strūctus (to build, to erect)
  • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix with –scō. Examples:
    • nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtus (to investigate, to learn)
    • adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī (to grow up, to mature)
    • flōrēscō, flōrēscere, flōruī (to begin to flourish, to blossom)
    • haerēscō, haerēscere, haesī, haesus (to adhere, to stick)
    • pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstus (to feed, to nourish)
Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix –iō. .

Fourth conjugation[edit]

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the –īre ending of the present active infinitive. Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:
  • perfect has suffix –vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus (to hear, listen (to))
    • mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītus (to fortify, to build)
  • perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
    • aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus (to open, to uncover)
  • perfect has suffix –sī (-xī when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptus (to surround, to enclose)
    • sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctus (to confirm, to ratify)
    • sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus (to feel, to perceive)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus (to come, to arrive)

Personal endings[edit]

Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice. These are formed by a participle and a form of esse (to be). For example, the perfect passive first person singular form of the verb amāre (to love) is amatus sum, using the participle and sum rather than the perfect stem amav- and some form of -ir. The perfect uses its own personal endings in the active voice, which are shown in the chart below.
Active voicePassive voice
Present tense, etc.First person–ō, –m–mus–or, –r–mur
Second person–s–tis–ris–minī
Third person–t–nt–tur–ntur
PerfectFirst person–ī–imus
Second person–istī–istis
Third person–it–ērunt / -ēre

Tenses of the imperfective aspect[edit]

The tenses of the imperfective aspect are present, imperfect, and future tense. Verb forms in the imperfective aspect express an action that has (or had) not been completed. Consider for concreteness the following verbs:
  • the first conjugation verb portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum (to carry, to bring)
  • the second conjugation verb terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum (to frighten, to deter)
  • the third conjugation verb petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack)
  • the fourth conjugation verb audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear, to listen (to))
In all the conjugations except for the third conjugation, the –re is removed from the second principal part (for example, portāre without the suffix –re becomes portā–) to form the present stem, which is used for all of the tenses in the imperfective aspect. In the third conjugation, the –ō ending of the present indicative is dropped in order to form the present stem (for example, the present indicative form of regere is regō, and without the  it is the present stem, reg–).[1] Occasionally, the terminating vowel of the stem is lengthened and/or shortened, and sometimes completely changed. This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations.

Present tense[edit]

The present tense (Latin tempus praesēns) is used to show an uncompleted action that happens in the current time. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. However, in this tense the thematic vowel, most notably the ě in the third conjugation, changes the most frequently.

Present indicative[edit]

The present indicative expresses general truths, facts, demands and desires. Most commonly, a verb like portō can be translated as "I carry," "I do carry," or "I am carrying". In all but the third conjugation, only the thematical vowel of the stem is used. In the third conjugation, the e is only used in the second person singular in the passive for a less difficult pronunciation. Otherwise, it becomes either an i or u. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part. All end in –ō.
Present active indicative
First personportōportāmusterreōterrēmuspetōpetimusaudiōaudīmus
Second personportāsportātisterrēsterrētispetispetitisaudīsaudītis
Third personportatportantterretterrentpetitpetuntauditaudiunt
Add the passive endings to form the passive voice. The passive portor can be translated as "I am carried," or "I am being carried".
Present passive indicative
First personportorportāmurterreorterrēmurpetorpetimuraudioraudīmur
Second personportārisportāminīterrēristerrēminīpeterispetiminīaudīrisaudīminī
Third personportāturportanturterrēturterrenturpetiturpetunturaudīturaudiuntur
Notice that in the second person singular of petere, the thematic vowel is e (peteris, not petiris).

Present subjunctive[edit]

The present subjunctive may be used to assert many things. In general, in independent sentences, it is translated hortatorily (only in the third person plural), jussively andoptativelyPortem can be translated as "Let me carry." or "May I carry." Portēmus can be "Let us carry".
Some alterations have occurred in the vowels from the indicative and subjunctive.
  • The first conjugation now uses an e and an ē.
  • The second conjugation uses ea and .
  • The third conjugation uses a or ā.
  • The fourth conjugation uses ia or .
"Let's beat that giant", "Defeaall liars", or "She wears a diamond/tiara" are helpful mnemonics for remembering this. First conjugation verbs have an "e" in their stem (we), second conjugation verbs have an "-ea" (eat), third conjugation verbs have an "a" (caviar), and fourths have an "ia" (caviar). Other acceptable mnemonics include she reads adiary, he beats a liar, everybody eats apple iambics, let’s steaa fiat, he cheats a friar, or Cleeats clams in Siam.
Present active subjunctive
First personportemportēmusterreamterreāmuspetampetāmusaudiamaudiāmus
Second personportēsportētisterreāsterreātispetāspetātisaudiāsaudiātis
Third personportetportentterreatterreantpetatpetantaudiataudiant
Like the indicative, active personal endings may be replaced by passive personal endings. Porter can be translated as "Let me be carried" or "May I be carried." Hortatorily,Portēmur can be "Let us be carried".
Present passive subjunctive
First personporterportēmurterrearterreāmurpetarpetāmuraudiaraudiāmur
Second personportērisportēminīterreāristerreāminīpetārispetāminīaudiārisaudiāminī
Third personportēturportenturterreāturterreanturpetāturpetanturaudiāturaudiantur

Present imperative[edit]

The present imperative conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. Portā can be translated as "(You) Carry" or simply, "Carry". The imperative present occurs only in the second person.
  • The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending.
Present active imperative
Second personportāportāteterrēterrētepetepetiteaudīaudīte
The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used, except in the case of deponent verbs, whose passive forms carry active meaning. Portāminī can be translated as "(You) Be carried". The deponent sequīminī, on the other hand, means "(You) Follow!".
  • The singular uses the alternate form of the present passive indicative (which looks like the present active infinitive) and the plural uses the present passive indicative form of the second person plural.
Present passive imperative
Second personportāreportāminīterrēreterrēminīpeterepetiminīaudīreaudīminī


The imperfect (Latin tempus imperfectum) indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It is recognized by the tense signs  and  in the indicative, and re and  in the subjunctive.

Imperfect indicative[edit]

The imperfect indicative simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. Portābam can be translated to mean, "I was carrying," "I carried," or "I used to carry".
  • In the indicative, the imperfect employs its tense signs ba and  before personal endings are added.
Imperfect active indicative
First personportābamportābāmusterrēbamterrēbāmuspetēbampetēbāmusaudiēbamaudiēbāmus
Second personportābāsportābātisterrēbāsterrēbātispetēbāspetēbātisaudiēbāsaudiēbātis
Third personportābatportābantterrēbatterrēbantpetēbatpetēbantaudiēbataudiēbant
As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. Portābar can be translated as "I was being carried," "I kept being carried," or "I used to be carried".
Imperfect passive indicative
First personportābarportābāmurterrēbarterrēbāmurpetēbarpetēbāmuraudiēbaraudiēbāmur
Second personportābārisportābāminīterrēbāristerrēbāminīpetēbārispetēbāminīaudiēbārisaudiēbāminī
Third personportābāturportābanturterrēbāturterrēbanturpetēbāturpetēbanturaudiēbāturaudiēbantur

Imperfect subjunctive[edit]

In the subjunctive, the imperfect is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. Portārem can mean, "I should carry," or "I would carry".
  • Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. The third conjugation's thematical remains short as an e, and the fourth conjugation does not use an before the imperfect signs. It keeps its ī.
  • In the subjunctive, the imperfect employs its tense signs re and  before personal endings.
  • The verb esse (to be) has two imperfect subjunctives: one using the present infinitive (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and one using the future infinitive (forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent).
Imperfect active subjunctive
First personportāremportārēmusterrēremterrērēmuspeterempeterēmusaudīremaudīrēmus
Second personportārēsportārētisterrērēsterrērētispeterēspeterētisaudīrēsaudīrētis
Third personportāretportārentterrēretterrērentpeteretpeterentaudīretaudīrent
As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. Portārer may be translated as "I should be carried," or "I would be carried."
Imperfect passive subjunctive
First personportārerportārēmurterrērerterrērēmurpetererpeterēmuraudīreraudīrēmur
Second personportārērisportārēminīterrērēristerrērēminīpeterērispeterēminīaudīrērisaudīrēminī
Third personportārēturportārenturterrērēturterrērenturpeterēturpeterenturaudīrēturaudīrentur

Future tense[edit]

The future tense (Latin tempus futūrum simplex) expresses an uncompleted action in the future. It is recognized by its tense signs bibua and ē in the indicative and the vowel ō in the imperative mood.

Future indicative[edit]

The future tense always refers to an incomplete action. In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. Standing alone, portābō can mean, "I shall carry," or "I will carry."
  • The first and second conjugations use bi and bu as signs for the future indicative.
  • The third and fourth conjugations replace their thematic vowels with aě and ē. The fourth conjugation inserts an ǐ before the ae and ē.
Future active indicative
First personportābōportābimusterrēbōterrēbimuspetampetēmusaudiamaudiēmus
Second personportābisportābitisterrēbisterrēbitispetēspetētisaudiēsaudiētis
Third personportābitportābuntterrēbitterrēbuntpetetpetentaudietaudient
As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. Portābor translates as, "I shall be carried."
Future passive indicative
First personportāborportābimurterrēborterrēbimurpetarpetēmuraudiaraudiēmur
Second personportāberisportābiminīterrēberisterrēbiminīpetērispetēminīaudiērisaudiēminī
Third personportābiturportābunturterrēbiturterrēbunturpetēturpetenturaudiēturaudientur
Notice that the penultimate vowel in the second person singular of portāre and terrēre is e, not i (portāberis and terrēberis, instead of the expected portābiris and terrēbiris).

Future imperative[edit]

The future imperative was a formal form of the imperative; by the classical period, it was chiefly used in legal documents[citation needed], though it retained some currency in distinct reference to future time.[2] A few irregular or defective verbs (meminisse 'remember') used this form as their only imperative.
Portātō can be translated as "You shall carry".
  • As mentioned previously, the vowel ō is used as a sign of the future imperative.
Future active imperative
Second personportātōportātōteterrētōterrētōtepetitōpetitōteaudītōaudītōte
Third personportātōportantōterrētōterrentōpetitōpetuntōaudītōaudiuntō
The ending -r marks the passive voice in the future imperative. The second person plural is absent here. Portātor translates as "You shall be carried."
Future passive imperative
Second personportātor——terrētor——petitor——audītor——
Third personportātorportantorterrētorterrentorpetitorpetuntoraudītoraudiuntor

Perfective aspect tenses[edit]

The tenses of the perfective aspect, which are the perfectpluperfect and future perfect tenses, are used to express actions that have been, had been, or will have been completed. The verbs used for explanation are:
1st conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)
To find the stem for the third principal part in all of the conjugations, the –ī is removed from it. For example, from portāvīportāv is formed. This is the perfect stem, and it is used for all of the tenses in the perfective aspect. The perfective aspect verbs also use the perfect passive participle in the passive voice. See below to see how it is formed. Along with these participles, the verb esse, which means, "to be", is used.
Unlike the imperfective aspect, inflection does not deviate from conjugation to conjugation.


The perfect (Latin tempus perfectum) refers to an action completed in the past. Tense signs are only used in this tense with the indicative. The tense signs of the subjunctive areeri and erī.

Perfect indicative[edit]

The indicative perfect expresses a finished action in the past. If the action were not finished, but still lies in the past, one would use the imperfect. Portāvī is translated as "I carried," "I did carry," or "I have carried."
  • As aforementioned, the indicative perfect in the active voice has its special personal endings.
Perfect active indicative
First personportāvīportāvimusterruīterruimuspetīvīpetīvimusaudīvīaudīvimus
Second personportāvistīportāvististerruistīterruistispetīvistīpetīvistisaudīvistīaudīvistis
Third personportāvitportāvēruntterruitterruēruntpetīvitpetīvēruntaudīvitaudīvērunt
In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with the auxiliary verb esse. It uses the present indicative form of essePortātus sum translates as "I was carried," or "I have been carried."
Perfect passive indicative
First personportātus sumportātī sumusterritus sumterritī sumuspetītus sumpetītī sumusaudītus sumaudītī sumus
Second personportātus esportātī estisterritus esterritī estispetītus espetītī estisaudītus esaudītī estis
Third personportātus estportātī suntterritus estterritī suntpetītus estpetītī suntaudītus estaudītī sunt

Perfect subjunctive[edit]

Like the imperfect subjunctive, the perfect subjunctive is largely used in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is usually translated as the potential subjunctive. By itself,portāverim translates as "I may have carried."
  • The tense signs eri and erī are used before the personal endings are added.
Perfect active subjunctive
First personportāverimportāverīmusterruerimterruerīmuspetīverimpetīverīmusaudīverimaudīverīmus
Second personportāverīsportāverītisterruerīsterruerītispetīverīspetīverītisaudīverīsaudīverītis
Third personportāveritportāverintterrueritterruerintpetīveritpetīverintaudīveritaudīverint
The passive voice uses the perfect passive participle with the subjunctive present forms of essePortātus sim means, "I may have been carried."
Perfect passive subjunctive
First personportātus simportātī sīmusterritus simterritī sīmuspetītus simpetītī sīmusaudītus simaudītī sīmus
Second personportātus sīsportātī sītisterritus sīsterritī sītispetītus sīspetītī sītisaudītus sīsaudītī sītis
Third personportātus sitportātī sintterritus sitterritī sintpetītus sitpetītī sintaudītus sitaudītī sint


The pluperfect (Latin tempus plūs quam perfectum) expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. It is recognized by the tense signs era and erā in the indicative and isse and issē in the subjunctive.

Pluperfect indicative[edit]

As with English, in Latin, the pluperfect indicative is used to assert an action that was completed before another (perfect). Portāveram translates as "I had carried."
  • The tense sign erā is employed before adding the personal endings, with the long ā following the usual rules for shortening before final -m, -t, and -nt.
Pluperfect active indicative
First personportāveramportāverāmusterrueramterruerāmuspetīverampetīverāmusaudīveramaudīverāmus
Second personportāverāsportāverātisterruerāsterruerātispetīverāspetīverātisaudīverāsaudīverātis
Third personportāveratportāverantterrueratterruerantpetīveratpetīverantaudīverataudīverant
In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with esse in the imperfect indicative. Portātus eram is translated as "I had been carried."
Pluperfect passive indicative
First personportātus eramportātī erāmusterritus eramterritī erāmuspetītus erampetītī erāmusaudītus eramaudītī erāmus
Second personportātus erāsportātī erātisterritus erāsterritī erātispetītus erāspetītī erātisaudītus erāsaudītī erātis
Third personportātus eratportātī erantterritus eratterritī erantpetītus eratpetītī erantaudītus erataudītī erant

Pluperfect subjunctive[edit]

The pluperfect subjunctive is to the perfect subjunctive as the imperfect subjunctive is to the present subjunctive. Simply put, it is used with the perfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Like the imperfect subjunctive, it is translated conditionally independently. Portāvissem is translated as "I should have carried," or "I would have carried."
  • The tense signs isse and issē are used before the personal endings.
Pluperfect active subjunctive
First personportāvissemportāvissēmusterruissemterruissēmuspetīvissempetīvissēmusaudīvissemaudīvissēmus
Second personportāvissēsportāvissētisterruissēsterruissētispetīvissēspetīvissētisaudīvissēsaudīvissētis
Third personportāvissetportāvissentterruissetterruissentpetīvissetpetīvissentaudīvissetaudīvissent
As always, the passive voice uses the perfect passive participle. The imperfect subjunctive of esse is used here. Portātus essem may mean "I should have been carried," or "I could have been carried," in the conditional sense.
Pluperfect passive subjunctive
First personportātus essemportātī essēmusterritus essemterritī essēmuspetītus essempetītī essēmusaudītus essemaudītī essēmus
Second personportātus essēsportātī essētisterritus essēsterritī essētispetītus essēspetītī essētisaudītus essēsaudītī essētis
Third personportātus essetportātī essentterritus essetterritī essentpetītus essetpetītī essentaudītus essetaudītī essent

Future perfect[edit]

Probably the least used of all the tenses, the future perfect (Latin tempus futūrum exāctum) conveys an action that will have been completed before another action. It is signified by the tense signs erō and eri. The future perfect is the only tense that occurs in a single mood.

Future perfect indicative[edit]

As said, the future perfect is used to mention an action that will have been completed in futurity before another action. It is often used with the future tense. In simple translation,portāverō means, "I will have carried," or "I shall have carried."
  • The tense signs erō and eri are used before the personal endings.
Future perfect active indicative
First personportāverōportāverimusterruerōterruerimuspetīverōpetīverimusaudīverōaudīverimus
Second personportāverisportāveritisterrueristerrueritispetīverispetīveritisaudīverisaudīveritis
Third personportāveritportāverintterrueritterruerintpetīveritpetīverintaudīveritaudīverint
As with all perfective aspect tenses, the perfect passive participle is used in the passive voice. However, the future perfect uses the future indicative of esse as the auxiliary verb.Portātus erō is "I will have been carried," or "I shall have been carried."
Future perfect passive indicative
First personportātus erōportātī erimusterritus erōterritī erimuspetītus erōpetītī erimusaudītus erōaudītī erimus
Second personportātus erisportātī eritisterritus eristerritī eritispetītus erispetītī eritisaudītus erisaudītī eritis
Third personportātus eritportātī eruntterritus eritterritī eruntpetītus eritpetītī eruntaudītus eritaudītī erunt

Non-finite forms[edit]

The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:
1st conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)

Participles [edit]

See also: Participle
There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.
  • The present active participle is declined like a third declension adjective with one ending.
    • In the first and second conjugations, the present active is formed by taking the present stem and adding an –ns. The genitive singular form adds an –ntis, and the thematicals ā and ē are shortened.
    • In the third conjugation, the e of the present stem is lengthened. In the genitive, the ē is short again.
    • In the fourth conjugation, the ī is shortened, and an ē is placed. Of course, this ē is short in the genitive.
    • Puer portāns translates into "carrying boy."
  • The perfect passive participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –us (masculine nominative singular).
    • Puer portātus translates into "carried boy."
  • The future active participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations the –um is removed from the supine, and an –ūrus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
    • Puer portātūrus translates into "boy going to carry," or "boy who is going to carry."
  • The future passive participle is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and then the adjective ending "-us, -a, -um". Thus "laudare" forms "laudandus".
    • The literal translation is "about to be praised", but this often extends a sense of obligation, thus "must be praised". Thus the "future passive participle" is often cross-listed as the "gerundive" (see below).
Present activeportāns, –antisterrēns, –entispetēns, –entisaudiēns, –entis
Perfect passiveportātus, –a, –umterritus, –a, –umpetītus, –a, –umaudītus, –a, –um
Future activeportātūrus, –a, –umterritūrus, –a, –umpetītūrus, –a, –umaudītūrus, –a, –um
Future passiveportandus, –a, –umterrendus, –a, –umpetendus, –a, –umaudindus, –a, –um

Infinitives [edit]

See also: Infinitive
There are six infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active and future passive.
  • The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusativus cum infinitivo, for instance.
    • Portāre means, "to carry."
  • The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an –ī is added.
    • Portārī translates into "to be carried."
  • The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an –isse onto the perfect stem.
    • Portāvisse translates into "to have carried."
  • The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Portātus esse means, "to have been carried."
  • The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
    • Portātūrus esse means, "to be going to carry." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore (fore is mostly used in a substitute expression for the Future Passive Infinitive)
  • The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb īrī.
    • Portātum īrī is translated as "to be going to be carried." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: Omnēs senātōres dīxērunt templum conditum īrī. "All of the senators said that a temple would be built."
Present activeportāreterrērepetereaudīre
Present passiveportārīterrērīpetīaudīrī
Perfect activeportāvisseterruissepetīvisseaudīvisse
Perfect passiveportātus esseterritus essepetītus esseaudītus esse
Future activeportātūrus esseterritūrus essepetītūrus esseaudītūrus esse
Future passiveportātum īrīterritum īrīpetītum īrīaudītum īrī
Here, masculine endings are used.
The Future Passive Infinitive was actually not very commonly used (Wheelock's Latin mentions it exists but makes it a point to avoid using it in any practice examples). In practice, the Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, "fore ut" followed by a subjunctive clause.

Supine [edit]

See also: Supine
The supine is the fourth principal part. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.
  • The accusative form ends in a –um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show the purpose. Thus, it is only used with verbs like cederevenīre, etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
    • Pater vēnit portātum līberōs suōs. – The father came to carry his children.
  • The ablative, which ends in a –ū, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
    • Arma haec facillima portātū erant. – These arms were the easiest to carry.

Gerund [edit]

See also: Gerund
The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the –ns becomes an –ndus, and the preceding ā or ē is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of thesecond declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form portandī can mean "of carrying", the dative form portandō can mean "to carrying", the accusative form portandum can mean "carrying", and the ablative form portandō can mean "by carrying", "in respect to carrying", etc.
One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example for "ready to attack the enemy" the constructionparatus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[3]

Gerundive [edit]

The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with an implicit esse, to show obligation.
  • Puer portandus "The boy to be carried"
  • Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
portandus, –a, –umterrendus, –a, –umpetendus, –a, –umaudiendus, –a, –um
For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.

Periphrastic conjugations[edit]

There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.


The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to carry," "I was going to carry", etc.
Pres. ind.portātūrus sumI am going to carry
Imp. ind.portātūrus eramI was going to carry
Fut. ind.portātūrus erōI shall be going to carry
Perf. ind.portātūrus fuīI have been going to carry
Plup. ind.portātūrus fueramI had been going to carry
Fut. perf. ind.portātūrus fuerōI shall have been going to carry
Pres. subj.portātūrus simI may be going to carry
Imp. subj.portātūrus essemI should be going to carry
Perf. subj.portātūrus fuerimI may have been going to carry
Plup. subj.portātūrus fuissemI should have been going to carry

Passive [edit]

The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am to be carried," "I was to be carried", etc., or as "I have to (must) be carried," "I had to be carried," etc.
Pres. ind.portandus sumI am to be carried
Imp. ind.portandus eramI was to be carried
Fut. ind.portandus erōI will deserve to be carried
Perf. ind.portandus fuīI was to be carried
Plup. ind.portandus fueramI had deserved to be carried
Fut. perf. ind.portandus fuerōI will have deserved to be carried
Pres. subj.portandus simI may deserve to be carried
Imp. subj.portandus essemI should deserve to be carried
Perf. subj.portandus fuerimI may have deserved to be carried
Plup. subj.portandus fuissemI should have deserved to be carried
Pres. inf.portandus esseTo deserve to be carried
Perf. inf.portandus fuisseTo have deserved to be carried


Irregular verbs[edit]

There are a few irregular verbs in Latin that are not grouped into a particular conjugation (such as esse and posse), or deviate slightly from a conjugation (such as ferre, īre, anddare). It consists of the following list and their compounds (such as conferre). Many irregular verbs lack a fourth principal part.
sum, esse, fuī, futūrum[1] – to be, exist
possum, posse[2], potuī – to be able, can
eō, īre, īvī / īī, ītum – to go
volō, velle, voluī – to wish, want
nōlō, nōlle, nōluī – to not want, refuse
mālō, mālle, māluī – to prefer
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum – to bear, endure, carry, bring
fīō, fierī, factus sum – to become, happen, be made
edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsum – to eat, waste
dō, dare, dedī, datum – to give, bestow
Of these, esseferre, and fierī are suppletive, that is, their deviating third and fourth principal parts reflect what was an entirely different verb historically (in Proto-Indo-European).

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs[edit]

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:
1st conjugation: mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum – to admire, wonder
2nd conjugation: polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum – to promise, offer
3rd conjugation: loquor, loquī, locūtus sum – to speak, say
4th conjugation: orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise, spring up
Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves, and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loquī, and there are no forms like loquōloquisloquit, etc.
Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus semideponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:
audeō, audēre, ausus sum – to dare, venture
Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, mīrārī changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and audeō changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Third conjugation –iō verbs[edit]

There is a rather prolific subset of important verbs within the third conjugation. They have an –iō present in the first principal part (–ior for deponents), and resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms. Otherwise, they are still conjugated as normal, third conjugation verbs. Thus, these verbs are called third conjugation –iō verbs or third conjugation i-stems. Some examples are:
capiō, capere, cēpī, captum – to take, seize, understand
cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum – to desire, long for
faciō, facere, fēcī, factum – to do, make
morior, morī[3], mortuus sum (dep.) – to die, decay
patior, patī, passus sum (dep.) – to suffer, undergo, endure
rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum – to plunder, take up, seize, snatch, carry away
They resemble the fourth conjugation in the following instances.
Present indicative (first person singular, third person plural) – capiō, capiunt, etc.
Indicative imperfect – capiēbam, capiēbāmus, etc.
Indicative future – capiam, capiēmus, etc.
Subjunctive present – capiam, capiāmus, etc.
Imperative future (third person plural) – capiuntō, etc.
Present Active Participle – capiēns, –entis
Gerund – capiendī, capiendum, etc.
Gerundive – capiendus, –a, –um

Defective verbs[edit]

Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.
  • Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ōdī means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
ōdī, ōdisse – to hate
meminī, meminisse – to remember
coepī, coepisse – to have begun
  • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" or "Out with it" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.
The following are conjugated irregularly:

Aio [edit]

Conjugation of aiō
First personaiō——aiēbamaiēbāmus————
Second personais——aiēbāsaiēbātisaiās*——
Third personaitaiuntaiēbataiēbantaiataiant*
Present Active Participle: – aiēns, –entis

Inquam [edit]

Conjugation of inquam
Present indicativeFuture
First personinquaminquimus[4]————inquiī[5]——————
Second personinquis——inquiēs——inquistī[6]——————
Third personinquitinquiuntinquiet——inquit——inquiēbat[4]——

Fari [edit]

Conjugation of fārī
First personfor——fābor——fātus sum——fātus eram——————
Second person————————————————fāre——
Third personfāturfanturfābitur——————————————
Present Active Participle – fāns, fantis
Present Active Infinitive – fārī (variant: fārier)
Supine – (acc.) fātum, (abl.) fātū
Gerund – (gen.) fandī, (dat. and abl.) fandō, no accusative
Gerundive – fandus, –a, –um
The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ōdī) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).

Impersonal verbs[edit]

Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "It storms"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:
pluit, pluere, pluvit – to rain (it rains)
ningit, ningere, ninxit[5] – to snow (it snows)
oportet, oportēre, oportuit – to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
licet, licēre, licuit – to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])
The third person forms of esse may also be seen as impersonal when seen from the perspective of English:
Nox aestīva calida fuit. – It was a hot, summer night.
Est eī quī terram colunt. – It is they who till the land.

Irregular future active participles[edit]

As stated, the future active participle is normally formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –ūrus. However, some deviations occur.

Alternative verb forms[edit]

Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):
  • The ending –ris in the passive voice may be –re as in:
portābāris → portābāre
  • The ending –ērunt in the perfect may be –ēre (primarily in poetry) as in:
portāvērunt → portāvēre

Syncopated verb forms[edit]

Like most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:
  • Perfect stems that end in a –v may be contracted when inflected.
portāvisse → portāsse
portāvistī → portāstī
portāverant → portārant
portāvisset → portāsset
  • The compounds of noscere (to learn) and movēre (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
novistī → nostī
novistis → nostis
commoveram → commoram
commoverās → commorās

Summary of forms[edit]

The four conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood[edit]

The Four Conjugations, Indicative Mood
1st2nd3rd3rd (i-stem)4th
laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātusterreō, terrēre, terruī, territusagō, agere, ēgī, actuscapiō, capere, cēpī, captusaudiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus
1st singularlaudōlaudorterrēoterreoragōagorcapiōcapioraudiōaudior
2nd personlaudāslaudāristerrēsterrērisagisageriscapiscaperisaudīsaudīris (audīre)
3rd personlaudatlaudāturterretterrēturagitagiturcapitcapiturauditaudītur
1st plurallaudāmuslaudāmurterrēmusterrēmuragimusagimurcapimuscapimuraudīmusaudīmur
2nd personlaudātislaudāminīterrētisterrēminīagitisagiminīcapitiscapiminīaudītisaudīminī
3rd personlaudantlaudanturterrentterrenturaguntagunturcapiuntcapiunturaudiuntaudiuntur