Wednesday, February 24, 2016

British Peerage ~ The Editors Of Encyclopædia Britannica School And Library Subscribers!!

The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle
A copperplate 
by Andrew Bell from the 1st edition.

Written by: The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica

*Alternative title: K.T.

The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistlethe Scottish order of knighthood whose modern period dates from King James VII of Scotland (James II of England), who revived it in 1687, and Queen Anne, who revived it again in 1703.
As with many orders of chivalry, its origins lie much further back in time. Tradition has it that at the end of the 8th century Achaius, King of Scots, founded a chivalric order and introduced the veneration of St. Andrew into Scotland, but few scholars accept this. More probable is that the Order of the Thistle relates to an order founded by King David I of Scots in the 12th century, as that king responded (as he did in so much else) to the Flemish influence in his court (the thistle was claimed as a Flemish emblem at that time). Later, James III of Scots (reigned 1460–88) created an order of knighthood and used the thistle as a royal emblem, so there are at least three possible founders of the ancient order. When the modern founder, James II of England, was deposed in 1688, the modern version fell dormant, but it was revived once more by Queen Anne in 1703.
The membership of the order established in 1687 comprised the Scottish sovereign and eight knights. Queen Anne increased the number of knights to 12, and in 1827 the number was raised to 16, which is its current number. The only foreigner admitted has been King Olaf V of Norway. Conferment of the order entails induction into knighthood, if the candidate is not already a knight, and the right to use the title “Sir.” Holders add KT (Knight of the Order of the Thistle) after their name. In order of precedence among knights, Knights of the Thistle are ranked just below Knights of the Garter, these two orders being the oldest and most honoured in Britain. (Knights of the Thistle and of the Garter rank as Knights Grand Cross when compared with other orders and thus may be granted the use of supporters with their arms.)
There are five officers—Chancellor, Dean, Secretary, Lyon King of Arms, and Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod. The order, dedicated to St. Andrew, patron saint of Scotland, celebrates its feast day on November 30th (St. Andrew’s Day). The beautiful Thistle chapel, built in 1911, is in St. Giles’s Cathedralin Edinburgh.
The insignia comprise a star bearing St. Andrew’s cross, in the centre of which is a green thistle on a field of gold; a badge portraying St. Andrew and his cross; and a collar consisting of thistles alternating with sprigs of rue. All insignia are returned upon the holder’s death. The motto of the order, “Nemo me impune lacessit” (“No one provokes me with impunity”), is also the motto of all Scottish regiments, although more popularly rendered as “Wha daur meddle wi’ me?”

*Alternative title

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For The 1967 double A-side by the Monkees, 'Alternate Title', see Randy Scouse Git.
An alternative title is a media sales device most prominently used in film distributionBooks and films are commonly released under a different title when they are screened or sold in a different country. This can vary from small change to the title, such as the addition of The, to wholesale changes. Film titles are also often changed when they are released on DVD or VHS.


The reasons for this are varied, but usually point towards marketable, linguistic or cultural differences. Some titles may not be easily understood in other parts of the world, and may even be considered offensive. Most title changes are commercial. An example is Italian Director's Sergio Leone's 1971 film initially released as Duck, You Sucker!, as he was convinced this was a well-known English saying. When the film sold poorly, it was subsequently rebranded as A Fistful of Dynamite, similar in name to his 1964 film A Fistful of Dollars, part of the successful Dollars Trilogy.
When Scholastic Corporation bought the U.S. rights to Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, they thought that a child would not want to read a book with the word "philosopher" in the title and, [1] after some discussion, the American edition was published in September 1998[2] under the title Rowling suggested, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone[3] Rowling claimed that she regretted this change and would have fought it if she had been in a stronger position at the time. [4] Philip Nel has pointed out that the change lost the connection with alchemy.

Why Newsprint Is Not On The Street Remains To Be Understand Ding?? Dye^Jest^Chin?? Dye^Jest^Shin?? or The Factor On Real Time!!

David Fincher

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
David Fincher
David Fincher (2012) 3.jpg
Fincher at the Paris premiere of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo in 2012
BornDavid Andrew Leo Fincher
August 28, 1962 (age 53)
DenverColorado, U.S.
Other namesFinch
Dave Fincher
OccupationFilm director, film producer, television director, television producer, music video director
Years active1984–present
Donya Fiorentino (1990–1995)
Ceán Chaffin
Children1 (with Fiorentino)
David Andrew Leo Fincher[1][2] (born August 28, 1962) is an American film director, film producer, television director, television producer, and music video director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for the romantic fantasy drama The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008) and the drama The Social Network (2010). For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director and the BAFTA Award for Best Direction.
He is also known for having directed the psychological thrillers Seven (1995), Fight Club (1999), and Gone Girl (2014) and the mystery thrillers Zodiac (2007) and The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), as well as being instrumental in the creation of the critically acclaimed U.S. television series House of Cards.

Early life[edit]

Fincher was born on August 28, 1962 in DenverColorado, the son of Claire Mae (née Boettcher), a mental health nurse from South Dakota who worked in drug addiction programs, and Howard Kelly Fincher, an author from Oklahoma who worked as a reporter and bureau chief for Life.[3][4] Howard died of cancer in April 2003.[1][5] Fincher knew from a young age he wanted to go into filmmaking. When Fincher was two years old, the family moved to San Anselmo, California, where filmmaker George Lucas was one of his neighbors.[4] Fincher moved to Ashland, Oregon in his teens, where he graduated from Ashland High School. During high school, he directed plays and designed sets and lighting after school, and was a non-union projectionist at a second-run movie theater, production assistant at the local television news station KOBI in Medford, Oregon, and took on other odd jobs such as fry cook, busboy, and dishwasher.[4][6] Inspired by Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), Fincher began making movies at age eight with an 8mm camera.[4][7]


Early career[edit]

Fincher was employed at Korty Films as a production assistant. He moved up the ranks and became a visual-effects producer[4] and worked on the animated Twice Upon a Time(1983). He was later hired by Industrial Light & Magic in 1983, where he was an assistant cameraman and matte photographer[4] and worked on productions for Return of the Jedi (1983) and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984).[8] In 1984, he left ILM to direct a commercial for the American Cancer Society that shows a fetus smoking a cigarette.[4] This quickly brought Fincher to the attention of producers in Los Angeles, and he was given the chance to direct the documentary The Beat of the Live Drum, featuring Rick Springfield, in 1985. Though he would continue to direct spots for companies like Levi'sConverseNikePepsiRevlonSonyCoca-Cola, and Chanel[4] Fincher soon discovered music videos and went on to direct many promos. He directed the video for the 1986 release of the single "We Don't Have to Take Our Clothes Off", which was the biggest commercial success for Pop/R&B singer Jermaine Stewart,[9] and extensively worked with Madonna directing several of her music videos including "Express Yourself", "Oh Father", "Vogue" and "Bad Girl".

Propaganda Films[edit]

Set on a directing career, Fincher co-founded video-production company Propaganda Films and started off directing music videos and commercials. Like Fincher, directors such as Michael BayAntoine FuquaMichel GondrySpike JonzeAlex ProyasPaul RachmanMark RomanekZack SnyderGore Verbinski and others honed their talents at Propaganda Films before moving on to feature films.

1990s: Alien 3SevenThe Game and Fight Club[edit]

After directing several music videos, Fincher's feature debut was Alien 3 (1992). While it received an Oscar nomination for visual effects, the film was not well received by critics or moviegoers. Fincher became involved with several disputes with 20th Century Fox over script and budget issues. In Director's Cut: Picturing Hollywood in the 21st Century,[10]he blames the producers for not putting the necessary trust in him. He stated in an interview with The Guardian in 2009: "No one hated it more than me; to this day, no one hates it more than me." After this, he retreated back into the world of commercial and music video directing, including the video for the Grammy Award-winning track "Love Is Strong" (1994) by The Rolling Stones.
In 1995, Fincher directed Seven. The film, based on a screenplay by Andrew Kevin Walker, told the story of two detectives (played by Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman) tracking down a serial killer who bases his killings on the seven deadly sins. The film grossed more than $100 million domestically (over $300 million internationally).[11]
After the success of Seven, Fincher went on to film The Game (1997). The story focused on a closed-off San Francisco businessman (played by Michael Douglas) who receives an unusual gift from his younger brother (Sean Penn), in which he becomes the main player of a role-playing game that takes over his life. The film had middling box-office returns despite being well received by critics.[citation needed]
Fight Club (1999) is a screen adaptation of Chuck Palahniuk's 1996 novel about an insomniac office worker who opens up a club devoted exclusively to bare knuckle fighting for men. Featuring Edward NortonHelena Bonham Carter, and Seven collaborator Brad Pitt, the film was an early disappointment at the box-office and received mixed reviews.Entertainment Weekly, which had originally given the film a D-,[12] later ranked the DVD #1 on its list of 50 Essential DVDs.[13]

2000s: Panic Room, hiatus, Zodiac and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button[edit]

In 2006, the British magazine Total Film voted Fight Club number four in the 100 Greatest Movies of All Time, beaten only by JawsVertigo and Goodfellas at 3, 2 and 1 respectively.[14]
In 2002, Fincher followed up with the thriller Panic Room. The film earned over $92 million at the U.S. box office. The story follows a single mother (Jodie Foster) and her daughter (Kristen Stewart) as they hide in a safe room of their new house, away from criminals (Forest WhitakerDwight Yoakam, and Fight Club collaborator Jared Leto) bent on finding a missing fortune. Fincher acknowledged Panic Room as a more mainstream thriller, describing the film, on the DVD's audio commentary, as "[basically] a date movie" and a "really good B movie" about "two people trapped in a closet".
Five years after Panic Room, Fincher returned on March 2, 2007 with Zodiac, an adaptation of Robert Graysmith's books about the hunt for the Zodiac Killer that starred Jake GyllenhaalMark RuffaloRobert Downey, Jr.Anthony Edwards, and Brian Cox. The first of Fincher's films to be shot digitally, the majority of the film was recorded on aThompson Viper Film Stream Camera. However, high-speed film cameras were used for the Blue Rock Springs and Presidio Heights murder scenes for the slow-motion shots.[15]It was originally to be released in the fall of 2006 but was pushed back after Fincher refused to cut 20 minutes off the film.
Zodiac was one of the best-reviewed films of that year, with only two other 2007 films appearing on more top-10 lists (No Country for Old Men and There Will Be Blood).[16]However, the film struggled at the box office in the U.S., earning only $33 million, but did well overseas with a foreign gross of $51.7 million. Worldwide, Zodiac was a decent success.[17] Despite an aggressive campaign by the studio, expectations surrounding Robert Downey, Jr.'s supporting performance, Fincher's direction and Vanderbilt's adapted script, the film did not earn a single Academy Award nomination.[18]
A story about life and death, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button is an adaptation of F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story of the same name. The film was Fincher's third with Brad Pitt. The film started shooting in November 2006 in New Orleans, before moving on to the Virgin Islands, Montreal, and L.A. Both Zodiac and this film are co-productions ofParamount Pictures and Warner Bros. The budget for the film was estimated at $150 million, partly due to the CGI effects used to reverse the aging in Pitt's character. It received 13 nominations at the 81st Academy Awards, including Fincher's first nomination for Best Director. It won three Academy Awards for Best Art DirectionBest Makeup, and Best Visual Effects.

2010s: The Social NetworkThe Girl with the Dragon TattooGone Girl and television career[edit]

Fincher directed the 2010 film The Social Network, about the legal battles of Mark Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook. The film features an Oscar-winning screenplay byAaron Sorkin, adapted from the book The Accidental Billionaires. Featuring a young cast ensemble, the film was produced by Scott RudinKevin Spacey and Michael DeLuca. Filming started in October 2009[19] and was released a year later, to critical acclaim. Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross created the Oscar-winning soundtrack for the film. Fincher had long been a fan of Reznor's work in Nine Inch Nails, even putting a remix of "Closer" in the beginning of Seven and directing the music video for "Only". The film went on to win many awards, including four Golden Globes (including Best Motion Picture – DramaBest DirectorBest Screenplay and Best Original Score), three BAFTAs (including Best Direction), and three Academy Awards for Best Adapted ScreenplayBest Original Score, and Best Film Editing.[20]
Fincher directed the American version of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, which was based on the book by Stieg Larsson, with a script written by Steven Zaillian. The film was shot in Sweden, with Rooney Mara (who played Erica Albright in The Social Network) as Lisbeth Salander, Daniel Craig as Mikael Blomkvist, Robin Wright as Erika Berger, Stellan Skarsgård as Martin Vanger and Christopher Plummer as Henrik Vanger. The film was released on December 21, 2011. Dragon Tattoo writer Steve Zaillian is in the early stage of scripting The Girl Who Played with Fire, which Fincher has the option to direct. While he has not yet committed to the project, the Oscar-nominated filmmaker has admitted that (should he sign on) he would prefer to shoot both the second and third Millennium book adaptations back-to-back, for both practical and artistic purposes.[21][22] Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross composed the soundtrack for the film (their second collaboration with Fincher).[23] It received five Academy Award nominations at the 84th Academy Awardsincluding: Best Actress for Rooney Mara, Best CinematographyAcademy Award for Best Sound EditingBest Sound Mixing and won one award for Best Film Editing.
Fincher is executive producer of the Netflix television series House of Cards; he also directed the first two episodes.[24] The series has received critical acclaim, receiving ninePrimetime Emmy nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series and Fincher for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for the first episode, which he won.[25]
Fincher directed the adaptation of Gillian Flynn's novel Gone Girl,[26][27] Production began in September 2013[28] and the film was released on October 3, 2014.[29] Fincher signed a three-series deal with HBO for UtopiaShakedown, and Living on Video. He was to handle the directing and writing duties for the first season of HBO's adaptation of Utopia, a British television series, but budget disputes between HBO and Fincher led to the project being cancelled in July 2015.[30]

Future work[edit]

Shakedown, a noir-ish crime drama, set in LA in the 1950s, is about a tabloid world and the underbelly of Los Angeles in the 1950s and centers on a real-life private detective. It is inspired by the life of legendary 1950s Hollywood vice cop-turned-private eye Fred Otash.[31] Fincher will be producing the series while author James Ellroy will be developing the series. This will be Fincher's second TV project after House of Cards on Netflix, which also attracted actor Kevin Spacey.[32] Living on Video, a comedy set in the 1980s, will follow Robby, a college drop out, pursuing his dream as a music video and film director in Hollywood.[33] Red Band Society actor Charlie Rowe will play the lead role after Tyler Ross dropped out due to conflicts.[34] Fincher is attached to direct another Netflix TV series, Mindhunter, starring Charlize Theron. The series is based on the book Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI’s Elite Serial Crime Unit.

Personal life[edit]

Fincher married model-photographer Donya Fiorentino in 1990 and divorced in 1995. They have a daughter, Phelix Imogen Fincher. Fincher is married to producer Ceán Chaffin. [35]
In an interview with Empire magazine in 2008, Fincher named the following films as his favorites: Alien (1979), All That Jazz (1979), All the President's Men (1976), American Graffiti (1973), Being There (1979), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), Cabaret (1972), Chinatown (1974), Citizen Kane (1941), Days of Heaven (1978), Dr. Strangelove (1964),  (1963), The Exorcist (1973), The Godfather Part II (1974), The Graduate (1967), Jaws (1975), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Mad Max 2 (1981), Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975), National Lampoon's Animal House (1978), Paper Moon (1973), Rear Window (1954), Taxi Driver (1976), The Terminator (1984), The Year of Living Dangerously (1982), and Zelig (1983).[36]



YearTitleDirectorProducerExecutive producer
1992Alien 3Yes
1997The GameYes
1999Fight ClubYes
2001The HireYes
2002Panic RoomYes
2005Lords of DogtownYes
2006Love and Other DisastersYes
2008The Curious Case of Benjamin ButtonYes
2010The Social NetworkYes
2011The Girl with the Dragon TattooYes
2014Gone GirlYesYes


YearTitleDirectorProducerExecutive producerNotes
2013 –House of CardsYesYesDirected 2 episodes

Music videos[edit]

As a music video director, Fincher has won two Grammy Awards for Best Music Video, for his work in "Love Is Strong" by The Rolling Stones (1995) and "Suit & Tie" by Justin Timberlake and Jay-Z (2013), and three MTV Video Music Awards for Best Direction, being one of the most awarded directors in the category, alongside Spike Jonze. He also earned back-to-back MTV Video Music Awards for Best Direction in 1989 for "Express Yourself" and in 1990 for "Vogue". In 1990, he earned three of the four available nominations in the Best Direction category.


Critical reception[edit]

FilmRotten TomatoesMetacritic
The Game71%[48]61[49]
Fight Club79%[50]66[51]
Panic Room76%[52]65[53]
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button72%[56]70[57]
The Social Network96%[58]95[59]
The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo86%[60]71[61]
Gone Girl88%[62]79[63]

Box office performance[edit]

FilmStudioRelease dateBox office grossBudgetReference
North AmericaOther territoriesWorldwide
Alien320th Century FoxMay 22, 1992$55,473,545$104,340,953$159,814,498$50 million[64]
SevenNew Line CinemaSeptember 22, 1995$100,125,643$227,186,216$327,311,859$33 million[65]
The GamePolyGramSeptember 12, 1997$48,323,648$61,100,000$109,423,648$50 million[66]
Fight Club20th Century FoxOctober 15, 1999$37,030,102$63,823,651$100,853,753$63 million[67]
Panic RoomColumbiaMarch 29, 2002$96,397,334$100,000,081$196,397,415$48 million[68]
ZodiacParamount / Warner Bros.March 2, 2007$33,080,084$51,705,830$84,785,914$65 million[69]
The Curious Case of Benjamin ButtonDecember 25, 2008$127,509,326$206,422,757$333,932,083$150 million[70]
The Social NetworkColumbiaOctober 1, 2010$96,962,694$127,957,621$224,920,315$40 million[71]
The Girl with the Dragon TattooMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer / ColumbiaDecember 20, 2011$102,068,888$130,101,637$232,617,430$90 million[72]
Gone Girl20th Century FoxOctober 3, 2014$167,238,510$199,700,000$366,938,510$61 million[73]
Total$858,764,264$1,246,038,476$2,136,548,250$650 million

Awards and Nominations[edit]

1992Alien 3Saturn Award for Best DirectorNominated
1993Hugo Award for Best Dramatic PresentationNominated
1999Fight ClubOnline Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
2007ZodiacPalme d'OrNominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
London Film Critics' Circle Award for Director of the YearNominated
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
2008Bodil Award for Best American FilmNominated
Empire Award for Best DirectorNominated
The Curious Case of Benjamin ButtonLondon Film Critics' Circle Award for Director of the YearWon
National Board of Review Award for Best DirectorWon
Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best DirectorNominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding DirectingNominated
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best DirectorNominated
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
SFX Award for Best DirectorNominated
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best DirectorWon
2009Saturn Award for Best DirectorNominated
Golden Globe Award for Best DirectorNominated
BAFTA Award for Best DirectionNominated
Academy Award for Best DirectorNominated
2010The Social NetworkBoston Society of Film Critics Award for Best DirectorWon
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorWon
César Award for Best Foreign FilmWon
David di Donatello for Best Foreign FilmNominated
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorWon
Film Critics Circle of Australia for Best Foreign FilmWon
Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best DirectorWon
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorWon
London Film Critics Circle Award for Director of the YearWon
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorWon
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best DirectorWon
Nastro d'Argento for Best Non-European DirectorNominated
Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
Robert Festival for Best American FilmNominated
San Francisco Film Critics Circle Award for Best DirectorWon
Southeastern Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorWon
Russian Guild of Film Critics for Best Foreign FilmNominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorWon
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best DirectorWon
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics AssociationNominated
2011Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best DirectorWon
Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature FilmNominated
Empire Award for Best DirectorNominated
Bodil Award for Best American FilmNominated
Golden Globe Award for Best DirectorWon
Satellite Award for Best DirectorWon
BAFTA Award for Best DirectionWon
Academy Award for Best DirectorNominated
2012The Girl with the Dragon TattooDirectors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature FilmNominated
2013House of CardsPeabody Award[74]Won
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama SeriesWon
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama SeriesNominated
Gone GirlIowa Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorRunner-up
Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
Dorian Award for Film Director of the YearNominated
Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best DirectorNominated
St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best DirectorNominated
2015Golden Globe Award for Best DirectorNominated
Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best DirectorNominated
Satellite Award for Best DirectorNominated
House of CardsPrimetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama SeriesNominated