Sunday, August 9, 2015

Pause A Tron Knick`T

Positronic brain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
positronic brain is a fictional technological device, originally conceived by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (1920–1992).[1][2] It functions as a central processing unit (CPU) for androids, and, in some unspecified way, provides them with a form of consciousness recognizable to humans. When Asimov wrote his first robot stories in 1939 and 1940, thepositron was a newly discovered particle, and so the buzz word positronic added a contemporary gloss of popular science to the concept.

Conceptual overview[edit]

Asimov remained vague about the technical details of positronic brains except to assert that their substructure was formed from an alloy of platinum and iridium. They were said to be vulnerable to radiation and apparently involve a type of volatile memory (since robots in storage required a power source keeping their brains "alive"). The focus of Asimov's stories was directed more towards the software of robots — such as the Three Laws of Robotics — than the hardware in which it was implemented, although it is stated in his stories that to create a positronic brain without the Three Laws, it would have been necessary to spend years redesigning the brain itself.
Within his stories of robotics on Earth and their development by U.S. Robots, Asimov's positronic brain is less of a plot device and more of a technological item worthy of study.
A positronic brain cannot ordinarily be built without incorporating the Three Laws; any modification thereof would drastically modify robot behavior. Behavioral dilemmas resulting from conflicting potentials set by inexperienced and/or malicious users of the robot for the Three Laws make up the bulk of Asimov's stories concerning robots. They are resolved by applying the science of logic and psychology together with mathematics, the supreme solution finder being Dr. Susan Calvin, Chief Robopsychologist of U.S. Robots.
The Three Laws are also a bottleneck in brain sophistication. Very complex brains designed to handle world economy interpret the First Law in expanded sense to include humanity as opposed to a single human; in Asimov's later works like Robots and Empire this is referred to as the "Zeroth Law". At least one brain constructed as a calculatingmachine, as opposed to being a robot control circuit, was designed to have a flexible, childlike personality so that it was able to pursue difficult problems without the Three Laws inhibiting it completely. Specialized brains created for overseeing world economics were stated to have no personality at all.
Under specific conditions, the Three Laws can be obviated, with the modification of the actual robotic design.
  • Robots which are of low enough value can have the Third Law deleted; they do not have to protect themselves from harm, and the brain size can be reduced by half.
  • Robots that do not require orders from a human being may have the Second Law deleted, and therefore require smaller brains again, providing they do not require the Third Law.
  • Robots that are disposable, cannot receive orders from a human being and are not able to harm a human, will not require even the First Law. The sophistication of positronic circuitry renders a brain so small that it could comfortably fit within the skull of an insect.
Robots of the aforementioned last type directly parallel contemporary industrial robotics practice, though real-life robots do contain safety sensors and systems, in a concern for human safety (a weak form of the First Law; the robot is a safe tool to use, but has no "judgment", which is implicit in Asimov's own stories).

In Allen's trilogy[edit]

Several robot stories have been written by other authors following Asimov's death. For example, in Roger MacBride Allen's Caliban trilogy, a Spacer roboticist called Gubber Anshaw invents the gravitonic brain. It offers speed and capacity improvements over traditional positronic designs, but the strong influence of tradition make robotics labs reject Anshaw's work. Only one roboticist, Fredda Leving, chooses to adopt gravitonics, because it offers her a blank slate on which she could explore alternatives to the Three Laws. Because they are not dependent upon centuries of earlier research, gravitonic brains can be programmed with the standard Laws, variations of the Laws, or even empty pathways which specify no Laws at all.

References in other fiction and films[edit]

The Time Machine 2002 Film[edit]

In the 2002 film remake of The Time Machine by H. G. Wells, Dr. Alexander Hartdegen builds a time machine in order to save his girlfriend, Emma, after she is killed by a mugger, then by a horse and buggy. He travels forward from 1899 to 2030 to see if it is possible to save her (and to see if anyone else had built a time machine), and encounters a holographic computer librarian, Vox 114, who remarks that he has a positronic brain for storing knowledge, and after scanning all of his databanks, that time travel is fundamentally impossible. Ultimately, Dr. Hartdegen travels forward to the year 802,701 and finds Vox 114 still functioning after all that time.

The Avengers[edit]

In a mini story entitled "Night Vision!" in Annual #6 of the Marvel comic, writer Scot Edelman refers to the brain of the synthezoid "The Vision" as positronic. The Vision had a complicated history, being born of the dead android body of the original Human Torch, and the mind of the dead human Wonder Man, not to mention being programmed to be a killing machine by the armageddon-happy sentient robot Ultron, who in his turn had been inadvertently created by scientist Henry Pym, originally as a lab assistant. He overcame his programming and became a hero, but The Vision was always alternately coldly logical and given to violent emotion, and was able to break all three laws.

Doctor Who[edit]

In the fourth season (1966–67) Doctor Who story "The Power of the Daleks", second incarnation of the Doctor, played by Patrick Troughton, awakens from his first regenerationand eventually faces one of his old nemeses, the Daleks, a race of armed robotic tank shells with organic operators. Human space colonists examine "dead" Daleks and, upon their re-activation, conjecture as to "what sort of positronic brain must this device possess". However, the Daleks are actually organic life-forms that were encased in robotic shells, and thus do not possess the purported positronic brain and, in any case, do not obey the Three Laws of Robotics.
In the seventeenth season (1979–80) story "The Horns of Nimon", the fourth incarnation of the Doctor, played by Tom Baker, recognizes the Labyrinth-like building complex that serves as the lair of the Nimons as resembling both physically and functionally a "giant positronic circuit". When adequately fuelled, the giant circuit was capable of transferring massive amounts of energy over vast distances to generate two black holes as gateways to hyperspace and to sustain a tunnel that served as the motive power between them for the transport of an invading force of Nimons from the dying planet Crinoth to Skonnos.
In the fifth series (2010) Doctor Who story "Victory of the Daleks", the Daleks creates a human-cyborg scientist "Bracewell", that is implanted in to the British scientific community to develop technology for the war effort. The creation was said to be controlled by a positronic brain.

Star Trek[edit]

Several fictional characters from the "Star Trek" series "The Next Generation"—Lieutenant Commander Data, his "mother" Julianna Soong Tainer, his daughter Lal, and his brothers Lore and B-4—are androids equipped with positronic brains created by Dr. Noonien Soong.
None of these androids are constrained by Asimov's robot laws; Lore, lacking ethics and morals, kills indiscriminately. Data, though his actions are restricted by ethical programming provided by his creator, is also capable of killing in situations where it is absolutely necessary.
"Positronic implants" were used to replace lost function in Vedek Bareil's brain in the Deep Space 9 episode "Life Support".

Perry Rhodan[edit]

In the German science fiction series Perry Rhodan (written starting in 1961), positronic brains (German: Positroniken) are the main computer technology; for quite a time they are replaced by the more powerful Syntronics, but those stop working due to the increased Hyperimpedance. The most powerful positronic brain is called NATHAN and covers large parts of the Earth's moon. Many of the larger computers (including NATHAN) as well as the race of Posbis combine a biological component with the positronic brain, giving them sentience and creativity.

I, Robot, 2004 Film[edit]

The robots in the 2004 film I, Robot (loosely based upon several of Isaac Asimov's stories) also have positronic brains. Sonny, one of the main characters from the film, has two separate positronic brains—the second being a positronic "heart"—so it has choices open to him the other robots in the film do not have. Sonny also has the possibility of being able to develop emotions and a sense of right and wrong independent of the Three Laws of Robotics; it has the ability to choose not to obey them.
The film also features a colossal positronic brain, VIKI, who is bound by the Three Laws. Its interpretation of the laws allows VIKI to directly harm humans to protect humanity as a whole in an application of the Zeroth Law.

Bicentennial Man[edit]

The robots in the 1999 film Bicentennial Man (based on one of Asimov's stories) also have positronic brains, including the main character Andrew, an NDR series robot that starts to experience human characteristics such as creativity. Only when Andrew allows his positronic brain to "decay", thereby willfully abandoning his immortality, is he declared a human being.

Buck Rogers in the 25th Century[edit]

Twiki and Crichton, two robotic characters who appear in the Buck Rogers in the 25th Century television series, were equipped with positronic brains. Crichton recited Asimov's "Three Laws of Robotics" upon activation.

Mystery Science Theater 3000[edit]

In 1989, in the Mystery Science Theater 3000 Season One episode The Corpse VanishesCrow T. Robot and Tom Servo read an issue of Tiger Bot magazine featuring an interview with the Star Trek character, Data. They then lament the fact that they don't have positronic brains like him.


In the second episode, Spectreman's robot head is found and viewers discover he is a robot with a positronic brain.

For Horse Men

The dance of a Friend in the Closed board of the Inn: Ian by Name and Closet by lane,
is that the event of the poster to Want or is it the Event of the pre^dated to Sew!!

Mark the numbered bye the Flan and in the Caramel the Aspir spinned,
should the change lean borrow to a stead than on The Feat does the Foot print Peat.

Mart till the Rein is pouring Tiers,
at the in difference become the Train,
on Course is the jumper and the rider in a storm,
power to the Thunder and the Lightening will come.

So silent do good just I in a planned,
said to the Old Gods that this World is Sods,
grass in the Greenery the Potter is Should,
yet in that dig it is the Hell young that coulds.

Sorrow on the limit Tower touch the Peep whole,
a key from the Sincerely and that is dogging From,
part to that is the sands in a grain,
salts on the pepper in Purr fostered guns.

A Plain in the Sky for the Fire in the Black Smoke of a Ride,
is the barrel off the Pickle or the Cucumber on the batch,
making for the Tryst and the Horror of the Shining,
can the Sir be of the Brave ore Is the Act or Fat??

Kirk had a Cap tan and that is beam Mi Up,
on the sing along the Value granted strongs,
diction of Tis language and the Verse is Under neet,
bill might for The Fact Ore Read and marching on the Turd!!

I land in the Aisle of Man is Bankers from a Con A ree,
that is the Marsh so log thee Angle from the Sank,
cycle to a Timer is the bell A ring,
blue buy diamond fostered Earth thee Elephant ist Ivory The Key is Father`d birthed.

News That Mattered At Dot The Aye Organization Spot Com

 San Francisco International Horse Trials

San Francisco, California USA
Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Contact: Horses In California, Inc.
(415) 221 - 9438

On the heels of the great success enjoyed by U.S. equestrian athletes in Athens, an ambitious plan is being hatched to bring many of the world's top horse and rider combinations to San Francisco - for an annual Olympic level competition to be held at the Cow Palace and in John McLaren Park.

A formal bid to host North America's most challenging and prestigious all-around equestrian championship in San Francisco has been submitted to the United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) by Horses in California, Inc., a locally based nonprofit. The proposal calls for the staging of a "four-star" competition in the equestrian discipline of Eventing each fall, beginning in October 2006.

Eventing is a three-phase competition that combines Dressage, Speed and Endurance and Showjumping. The Dressage, or 'schooling', competition asks the competitor to perform an exacting series of prescribed movements within a 20 x 60 meter arena. The Speed and Endurance Phase incorporates a trot along scenic roads and tracks, the flat-out speed of the steeplechase course and the thrills of a cross-country gallop over a creatively concocted series of ditches, fences, banks and other formidable obstacles. On the final day, the competitors are asked to jump a challenging course of showjumping fences within a prescribed time. Penalties assessed in each phase are totaled, with the horse and rider accumulating the least penalty points declared the winners.

The sport of Eventing has its roots in the traditions of the mounted cavalry. It has been a part of the Olympic Games since 1912. Equestrian is one of the few sports in which men and women compete against each other on an equal playing field. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI), headquartered in Switzerland, governs international equestrian sports competition.

The effort to secure a championship event for San Francisco is being headed by longtime equestrian entrepreneurs Hugh and Melba Meakin. Proprietors of the Tal-y-Tara Tea and Polo Shoppe, the city's unique equestrian oasis, the Meakin's have a long history of community service, and are actively supported by a volunteer committee drawn from Northern California's sports, business, political, agricultural and media communities.

The bid submitted by the San Francisco group is the only West Coast representative in the competition to secure the USEF Fall Eventing Championship. \

'Four-star' events are conducted at the highest level of international competition and attract only the most skilled and experienced horse and rider combinations from throughout the world. In addition to the Olympic Games and FEI sanctioned World Equestrian Games, there are currently only four events held annually at this level. They are:

* The Mitsubishi Motors Badminton Horse Trials (England)
* The Burghley Horse Trials (England)
* The Rolex Kentucky 3-Day Event (USA)
* The Mitsubishi Adelaide International Horse Trials (South Australia)

Each of these contests annually draws 100,000 to 300,000 spectators.

The San Francisco International Horse Trials would join Adelaide as the only event of this kind staged in a large urban setting. The event is to be broadcast internationally via a partnership between HorseTV and Bay Area based SportsQuest International.

Hugh and Melba Meakin are highly respected as the founders of the James S. Brady Therapeutic Riding Program and the Golden Gate Park Polo Series. "Polo in the Park" an annual fundraiser for charity recently celebrated its 20th Anniversary.

The San Francisco International Horse Trials will actively involve members of the general public, the business community and various civic organizations. The event will provide jobs for residents of San Francisco and surrounding communities. The new Third Street light-rail line, supplemented by BART, Cal Trans, MUNI, and shuttle buses, will provide excellent transportation for spectators, thus avoiding the traffic congestion seen at other events.

A unique aspect of the San Francisco proposal is the staging of the Dressage and Showjumping phases of the competition in the Cow Palace, home of the annual Grand National Horse Show, Rodeo and Livestock Exposition. This site offers first rate stabling, parking, security and multimedia facilities. This will allow the organizers to be cost efficient while at the same time incorporating the highest standards within the staging and management of the competition. In addition to providing a hedge against the uncertainties of fall weather, the Cow Palace will adapt very well to the staging of the imaginative multimedia extravaganzas envisioned for the opening and closing ceremonies.

The speed and endurance phase of the event (including Cross-Country) will be held in 317-acre John McLaren Park, perhaps the most under-utilized facility of its kind in the country. The attention focused by the staging of the event at McLaren will greatly enhance efforts to bring new life to this beautiful park and its surrounding communities. Organizers of the San Francisco International Horse Trials seek to capture and inspire the imagination of a wider and more demographically diverse equestrian sports audience. Profiles of athletes, such Malaysia's Husref Malek or Olympic medallist Amy Tryon - a Seattle area firefighter, will be utilized to personalize, inspire and humanize the sport. Advertising and education will be key elements of the committee's outreach to individuals and communities throughout the Bay Area, Northern California and the Western United States.

Given that the 2006 FEI World Cup Showjumping Final has been awarded to Kuala Lumpur and that the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing, the organizers of the San Francisco International Horse Trials (working with their corporate and institutional partners) will seek to maximize opportunities for the development of closer relations with the nations of Asia and the Pacific Rim.

As America's gateway to the Pacific and a popular vacation and business destination, San Francisco is uniquely positioned to benefit from the diverse social, commercial and political activity that is generated by a major international sporting event.



United States Equestrian Federation

United States Eventing Association

Fédération Equestre Internationale

Tal-y-Tara Tea and Polo Shoppe

Polo in The Park


SportsQuest International

Cow Palace

John McLaren Park

Related publications:


7 October 2011
7-8 October 2011

Location: Wine Country Polo Club, Santa Rosa, California
Polo in the Park

This years cup to be presented by Winston Churchill's grand daughter Celia Sandys

Polo in the Park (PIP) is the be held this year at theWine Country Polo Club, one hour's drive north of San Francisco. PIP is an annual fundraising event for Horses in California, a charitable organization which provides funding for the James S. Brady Therapeutic Riding program in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Churchill Centre and Museum will team up with Horses in California for this event in 2011, to add a west coast polo event to our Calendar of Events. Hugh and Melba Meakin and their family have been putting on Polo in the Park to raise money for the James S. Brady Therapeutic Riding Program for nearly 25 years and we are very please to join forces with them this year. 

Many people are not aware that Winston Churchill was a polo player for most of his life and a champion one to boot. Churchill played polo into his 50's and actually continued to ride horses into his 70's. So as a great lover of polo and horses, the Churchill Centre is very proud to partner with this charitable organization in California.

For more information on the riding program, see their website

Follow this link to purchase your tickets online today


A limited number of rooms at a very special rate have been arranged at the host hotel, The Westin St. Francis in Union Square. Charter limo and bus service will be available to the Wine Country Polo club on Saturday. Please call or email for details.


Randall Baker
Event Director 

Hugh and Melba Meakin, Co-Founders, Horses in California
Laurence S. Geller, Chairman of the Board, The Churchill Centre

Please also consider joining us for the 2011 Annual Churchill Dinner and Benefactor Party in San Francisco on Wednesday, October 5th and Thursday, October 6th. Click here for more information.

The Churchill Centre and Museum is a 501(c)3 All contributions are tax deductible to the fullest extent of the law. Consult your tax professional for advice.

22 22nd Avenue, San Francisco, California 945121

$6,995,000 22 22nd AvenueSan Francisco-Outer Richmond, CA 94121

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$6,995,000 22 22nd AvenueSan Francisco-Outer Richmond, CA 94121

HughMelba Meakin
San Francisco-Outer Richmond
San Francisco County CA
City of San Francisco
San Francisco-Outer Richmond
22nd Avenue
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Yr. Built:
Sqft (land | living):
1,044,000 land | 6,200 living
Property Taxes:
$7,135.54 (2009)

Listing Information

No listing information for 22 22nd Avenue

Sales History

N/AResale12/24/2014B: Melba MeakinMeakin (Family Trust)Hugh MeakinBA: N/A
  S: Melba MeakinHugh MeakinSA: N/A

Info & Demographics

Elementary School:N/A
Middle School:N/A
High School:San Francisco School District
State Senator:State Sen. Leland Yee (D-08)
Median Income$144,245
White: All*80.6%
White: Latin or Hispanic*2.3%
Black or African American*0.9%
American Indian and Alaska Native*0.5%
Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander*0.2%
Census Tract:428/Phelan Beach State Park
*Alone or in combinationSource: U.S. Census