Monday, September 19, 2016

Did Any One Person Know That Witchcraft Had An Origin Word?? Elsdon Best (30 June 1856 – 9 September 1931) was an ethnographer ( the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study) who made important contributions to the study of the Māori of New Zealand.

Makutu ~

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mākutu in the Māori language of New Zealand means "witchcraft", "sorcery", "to bewitch"; and also a "spell or incantation".[1][2] It may also be described as a belief in malignant occult powers possessed by certain people.
Elsdon Best (1859-1931) portrayed the belief in mākutu as "universal and prominent in pre-European times", stating that it acted as "a disciplinary force in the old days; it was one of the substitutes for civil law that preserved order in a Māori community".[3] Best noted that the effectiveness of mākutu was heightened by the fact that it could be carried out in secret; the element of uncertainty produced caution on the part of those who might otherwise transgress the laws of the community. It was widely believed[by whom?][citation needed]that those expert in mākutu were able to use the art to kill people.[citation needed] But there were limits on their freedom to act: should an irresponsible practitioner of the dark arts become a nuisance to a tribe, the solution to the problem simply involved killing the errant magician without delay. The training undergone by an apprentice was long and difficult, involving secret rituals and tests.[3]
An October 2007 mākutu-lifting in the Lower Hutt suburb of Wainuiomata led to the death by drowning of a woman and the hospitalisation of a teen, allegedly due to attempts to remove such a curse.[4]




Makutu was the second fruitful source of disease. In the early days it may have been a useful weapon in the hands of the tohungas. As they were the learned section of the community, the fear inspired by the dread of makutu materially helped them in governing the tribe. The modus operandi we will describe but reserve all explanation until the ancient system of medicine has been dealt with. Makutu was the power of slaying people by calling up familiar spirits by means of incantation. It was amongst the subjects learnt in the House of Learning, though not universally, for all tohungas did not possess the power of makutu. In fact the "tohunga makutu" though feared was somewhat despised and condemned for his evil practises. The Maori as a warlike race looked upon fame in the battlefield as the highest honour and the cowardly method of killing one's enemy secretly by means of incantations was execrated and condemned as murder. There is an old proverb which runs:-
Mata rakau e taea te karo,
Mata rerepuku e kore e taea.
(A weapon made of wood can be (seen and) parried, but the weapon which strikes unseen (makutu) cannot be parried,).
The practice of makutu was often in the hands of old women warlocks who had some familiar spirit of the larvae or lemur type. The action of makutu upon the individual afflicted was similar to that in the preceding section. In the case of disease, the atua punished the transgressor of tapu, whilst in makutu the atua also afflicted the individual but it was in obedience to the command of a witch or wizard. Thus in cases of theft the power was often requisitioned to punish the thief. Any transgression against the community might be punished in a similar way. The methods of procedure vary PAGE 37but they all aim at destroying the "hau" or vital principle in man. Thus in the most common method, where the subject to be bewitched, was or course not present at the secret ceremony, it was necessary to have some material representation of the 'hau' to operate upon. This as already pointed out was the "ohonga". It could be some portion of wearing apparel, a look of hair, a remnant of food or even anything that the subject had touched such as a few grains of earth or sand taken from one of his footprints. In connection with this fear of leaving facilities for obtaining the ohonga the Maoris took great precautions. The "purenga" or place where the hair of a chief was cut, was tapu and guarded by atuas who would attack anyone tampering with the spot. The mass of the people would not leave their cut hair lying about but would carefully bury or burn it, of course never in a cooking-fire. I have seen my own mother carefully conceal any combings from her head. In this procedure there are two ideas involved, tapu and the fear of makutu. Great care was taken of extracted teeth. With children there was a ceremony of concealing any milk teeth in the fork of a growing tree to ensure the growth of permanent teeth and also I am sure to prevent their being used as an 'ohonga' for makutu. With food again great precautions were taken. In my youth I was warned not to leave any remnants of food lying about or even to expectorate in public places lest I should fall a victim to makutu. For a similar reason defaecation near the houses was carefully avoided and children specially warned against it. This helped to make all go to the public privy which had its own supernatural guardians to prevent anyone obtaining an ohonga for the purposes of makutu. It will be easily seen that many of these observances are useful from a health as well as a social point of view and used as a restraining influence by a worthy priesthood served a useful purpose. But neolithic tohungas were no better than the witches and wizards of civilised times. They PAGE 38used their power against personal enemies and they could be bought over by presents to remove the enemies of others. Some tribes were especially addicted to this practice and used makutu for the more pleasure of showing thir power and inspiring fear. Two coastal tribes, the Puketapu of Taranaki and the tribe inhabiting Tuparoa on the East Coast, bewitched the footprints of all strangers who passed along the sea-beach forming the sea-boundary of their territories. The mortality amongst travellers became so high, that people passing those dread sands selected the time when the tide was flowing in. By walking along in the edge of the sea they ensured the effacement of their footprints by the in-coming tide and so escaped death.
The ohonga having been obtained was subjected to the appropriate incantations. The incantations I have in my notes were obtained from a man of the Ngati-Porou tribe in 1867. He was tried by a tribunal of his tribe, admitted that he had killed by makutu and his incantations were copied down. The first incantation was repeated when seizing the ohonga and ran:-
Whakahopu ringa e Aitu,
Whakahopu ringa e tangata.
Lay hold Oh Death
Lay hold Oh man.
The ohonga, whilst other incantations were being repeated, was wrapped up in a piece of reed grass or flax and taken to some secluded spot near a stream where a hole was dug. At this stage, the spiritual form of the victim, the wairua, would appear and be recognised and the diagnosis was complete in cases of theft or crime. On the completion of the hole, according to this Ngati-Porou version, whilst the priest was repeating the words:-
Rangahua, tenei koe,
Tuturi mai,
PAGE 39Pepeke mai,
Whawharoro mai,
Tenei koe.,
Rangahua, here thou art,
Kneel within,
Crouch within,
Lie stretched out within,
Here thou art,
a particular bronzed fly appeared and flew into the prepared hole. The priest with a sudden movement, dashed a sod over the hole, imprisoning or slaying the fly and at the same time repeating the final words of death:-
Tamumu te rango,
Totoro te iro.
The blow-flies buzz,
The maggots crawl.
If the fly escaped, the victim would escape but If it were killed, he was a dead man. This use of the ohonga or obtaining some material object upon which to direct incantations, resembles the action of Scotch witches who to the tune of incantations destroyed clay or waxen effigies to cause the death of those thus represented, or upset a cockle-shell floating in a basin of water to cause a shipwreck. The civilised or Scotch system is not clear to the Maori mind. It seems to rely upon the primitive idea that like affects like. The Maori system, where the ohonga or material representation definately impregnated with the hau or vital essence of man was destroyed, has a connection all through and seems a more thought-out system. This hau of man stands in a somewhat similar relation to man that tapu does to the gods but the former was passive, the latter active. A man touching anything communicated to it some of his hau. It could thus be used as an ohonga and the hau of the person destroyed. Tapu was communicated in a similar way, but it PAGE 40killed. The tapu person had no fear of his human hau being taken from the impregnated ground where he had sat for his supernatural tapu had also been communicated to the spot. He had left a powerful anti-toxin on the place. The lesser person who could not rely so much upon the protective influence of tapu, could, when amomgst strangers, by the correct phrase remove his hau from where he had sat, in a similar way to that in which the sacred chief removed his tapu. In the for case this was done lest the passive hau should be bewitched and in the latter, lest the potential tapu should be converted into kinetic atua-biting disease by an act of desecration.
There are many variations of the above method. One was by directly spurning some dust over the victim. This was known as "rehu". Some cases are recorded, where the ohonga does not seem to have been used but the victim was slain at a distance.
A common method was to makutu a certain spot or certain materials. Thus a high chief who had been insulted by a neighbouring family was not strong enough to punish them in battle. He bewitched the
a stone, placed it in the centra of the main path to his village and left the district. Every one whose foot touched that stone died. The corner stones marking the boundaries of a cultivation were sometimes bewitched to prevent their removal. Thus the biblical warning "cursed be he that remove th his neighbor's land-mark" was literally fulfilled. Food was often bewitched that those who partook thereof might die. When the descendants of Tangaroa-Mihi were unable to defeat Ngati-tama in battle, they bewitched some red ochre and sent it as a present to the hitherto invincible sons of Tama. These warriors smeared their faces with the red ochre ere offering battle and as a result of the makutu were slain in battle and their tribe overthrown.
Makutu was thus also used to prevent the mana of a par-PAGE 41ticular person or family from becoming too great. Jealousy aroused by the fame of a warrior in battle, or the power of a chief in the tribal council, in the entertainment of visitors, and other actions which caused his fame to spread, might lead to makutu being employed, often by another branch of the family who were being outshone in military or civil fame. The makutu besides being directed against the individual might be directed against the family as a whole. In the latter case the family would become less productive. Instead of families of seven or eight or more, the children would die and leave perhaps a solitary survivor. The disease was therefore hereditary and the condition was known as a "whare ngaro", a lost house, that is, that particular house or family was becoming extinct. There are many families at the present time in this condition. The sub-tribe to which I belong, the "Ngati-aurutu" is now represented by two others besides myself. The other two are old men but they have no heirs. I have been married for four years without producing issue. My family, therefore, from the Maori view point is a typical 'whare ngaro' which a generation or two back was doomed to extinction by some old tohunga whose ban has never been properly removed. In connection with this, the incantations were generally repeated over some object such as a stone which was then carefully concealed. As long as this bewitched object remained concealed, death through wasting disease caused by the demon evoked would be ever present amongst the members of the family against which the makutu was directed.
The "Ahitaitai" is an example of a commingling of makutu and tapu. When the child of a chief of note had its navel cord concealed in a certain spot, that spot became tapu But in order to give the tapu a special virulence a certain ceremony was performed in which a sacred fire, the "ahitaitai" in this case, was used. The spot was bewitched or a special guardian left in charge. Anyone trespassing was punished severely. The Hon. A. T. Ngatainformed me of an ahitaitai in his family. It was located near the NativePAGE 42school of the district. The European school-teacher was warned of its proximity, but with the unbelief of his race, he included the spot in a fowl-run. He and his family partook of the eggs, and curious to say, were afflicted with violent abdominal pains and developed chronic diarrhoea of great obstinacy. The health of his family continued so bad that we had to leave the district. Thus was the ahitaitai vindicated upon the unbelieving white man.
Tapu and makutu, then, are the two great causes, according to the Maori, of disease and death. In reality there is only one cause, the gods who punish sin, not against the laws of public health, but against the religious enactments of the race and who obey the evil behests of man.

PONG!! The First Data With Game Means To Karaoke On-Screen With Speak-N-Spell As Sound Dean Out 'The Sign' In Silent Lyrics And Digit^Ties Beach Is To Know The Value Of 'The Wave'!!!!!

Infinity symbol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The ∞ symbol in several typefaces
The infinity symbol  (sometimes called the lemniscate) is a mathematical symbol representing the concept of infinity.


John Wallis introduced the infinity symbol to mathematical literature.
The shape of a sideways figure eight has a long pedigree; for instance, it appears in the cross ofSaint Boniface, wrapped around the bars of a Latin cross.[1] However, John Wallis is credited with introducing the infinity symbol with its mathematical meaning in 1655, in his De sectionibus conicis.[1][2][3][4] Wallis did not explain his choice of this symbol, but it has been conjectured to be a variant form of a Roman numeral for 1,000 (originally CIƆ, also CƆ), which was sometimes used to mean "many", or of the Greek letter ω (omega), the last letter in the Greek alphabet.[5]

Symbol used by Euler to denote infinity
Leonhard Euler used an open variant of the symbol[6] in order to denote "absolutus infinitus". Euler freely performed various operations on infinity, such as taking its logarithm. This symbol is not used anymore, and does not exist in Unicode.


In mathematics, the infinity symbol is used more often to represent a potential infinity,[1] rather than to represent an actually infinite quantity such as the ordinal numbers and cardinal numbers(which use other notations). For instance, in the mathematical notation for summations and limitssuch as
the infinity sign is conventionally interpreted as meaning that the variable grows arbitrarily large (towards infinity) rather than actually taking an infinite value.
In areas other than mathematics, the infinity symbol may take on other related meanings; for instance, it has been used in bookbinding to indicate that a book is printed on acid-free paper and will therefore be long-lasting.[7]

Modern Symbolism[edit]

The infinity symbol appears on several cards of the Rider–Waite tarotdeck
In modern mysticism, the infinity symbol has become identified with a variation of the ouroboros, an ancient image of a snake eating its own tail that has also come to symbolize the infinite, and the ouroboros is sometimes drawn in figure-eight form to reflect this identification, rather than in its more traditional circular form.[8]
In the works of Vladimir Nabokov, including The Gift and Pale Fire, the figure-eight shape is used symbolically to refer to the Möbius stripand the infinite, for instance in these books' descriptions of the shapes of bicycle tire tracks and of the outlines of half-remembered people. The poem after which Pale Fire is entitled explicitly refers to "the miracle of the lemniscate".[9]

Graphic design[edit]

The well known shape and meaning of the infinity symbol have made it a common typographic element of graphic design. For instance, the Métis flag, used by the Canadian Métis people in the early 19th century, is based around this symbol.[10] In modern commerce, corporate logos featuring this symbol have been used by, among others, Room for PlayStation PortableMicrosoft Visual StudioFujitsu, and CoorsTek.


The symbol is encoded in Unicode at U+221E  INFINITY and in LaTeX as \infty.
The Unicode set of symbols also includes several variant forms of the infinity symbol, that are less frequently available in fonts: U+29DC ⧜INCOMPLETE INFINITY (HTML  · ISOtech entity ), U+29DD ⧝ TIE OVER INFINITY (HTML ) and U+29DE ⧞ INFINITY NEGATED WITH VERTICAL BAR (HTML ) in block Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B.[11]

Why Is eh Sect Shin Considered An Infinite Sign As Should The Shingles Be Popcorn On That Telephone Call To Numbers Than What Is The Ringers Sound At The Bay Of .........

Be sure to not just 'click' to try those 30 Day Free Trials on Showtime, the streaming on-line is very interesting should the contract of agreement be read.  As I know many do not read these contracts I was different as I have Roku and a Television and a Computer that is made by acer.  The event of seeing how these 'pay for view' channels are working not on the DISH, I decided to give it a look to regard DISH as the best cable to shore these horrors that people are not regarding their contracts on the quick to see movies on their cellphones. For that reason I am placing the following as this is only the current stride to the hour of present, for I have a grandfather clause to know better than to do as the public is doing each and everyday.

On each of those applications that says 'read and review the following policies' it is important to do that even should it only be a 'trail offer' as in most cases the iphone is of a contact to the contract and all the information of you and store is now on the stream.

Showtime is only an example as I have DISH Television and do not suffer these product infringements in my life. For I order through DISH and that is and has been my path to how I have always watched television where cable is unavailable.  Even at that understanding it is the further comprehension that I bought my Roku at Target which makes the product registry with the original box and instructions thereof.  That is why the retail stores are in the fashion of knowing how important it is not to just stream-live edition of product but to enjoy the shelves as the stock is of all sew. This makes the safety to my home in total as there is no-way to path a counter to hacking any account should I have established both DISH and Roku for the regular scheduled programs, pay-per-view and the Movie Channels.

Please follow the instructions of your recommended reads or the fathom of your sell will identify your lie as agreed upon by only one click to try something out!!

It is the http: that is being lost on the web and that // to the www is also beginning to reserve itself to the type that seems to not show up on the tool bar.  These are the basic call sites that identify the Internet to the Worldwide Web and insure that the site you are approving application to is in the staff of the client privileged file and not the face of anonymous trending.  Be wise not an assumption as the hacking reported today is as easily identified as attempting to read these contracts is to the length of time it takes to type the correct addy and not the shortened stripped down version of the i.p. address.

Terms of Use for streaming Showtime

Privacy Policy for streaming Showtime

Video Services Policy for streaming Showtime

The actual I.P. Address is extremely important in order to read the correct site for the correct trending of the show that you have chosen to download.  Remember the words change as fast as the Con comes to the Times of the multiplication of money versus public awareness.

1. Terms of Use | SHOWTIME
For example, special provisions applicable to the Showtime standalone streaming service (the "Streaming Service") are contained in Section 8, and special ...






IP address

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the Wikipedia user access level, see Wikipedia:User access levels#Unregistered users
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.[1] An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."[2]
The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995.[3]IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998,[4] and its deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.
IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6).
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.

IP versions

Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. Each version defines an IP address differently. Because of its prevalence, the generic term IP address typically still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4. The gap in version sequence between IPv4 and IPv6 resulted from the assignment of number 5 to the experimentalInternet Stream Protocol in 1979, which however was never referred to as IPv5.

IPv4 addresses

Main article: IPv4 § Addressing

Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value.
In IPv4 an address consists of 32 bits which limits the address space to 4294967296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses(~270 million addresses).
IPv4 addresses are canonically represented in dot-decimal notation, which consists of four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g., Each part represents a group of 8 bits (octet) of the address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in various hexadecimaloctal, or binary representations.


In the early stages of development of the Internet Protocol,[1] network administrators interpreted an IP address in two parts: network number portion and host number portion. The highest order octet (most significant eight bits) in an address was designated as the network number and the remaining bits were called the rest field or host identifier and were used for host numbering within a network.
This early method soon proved inadequate as additional networks developed that were independent of the existing networks already designated by a network number. In 1981, the Internet addressing specification was revised with the introduction of classful network architecture.[2]
Classful network design allowed for a larger number of individual network assignments and fine-grained subnetwork design. The first three bits of the most significant octet of an IP address were defined as the class of the address. Three classes (AB, and C) were defined for universal unicast addressing. Depending on the class derived, the network identification was based on octet boundary segments of the entire address. Each class used successively additional octets in the network identifier, thus reducing the possible number of hosts in the higher order classes (B and C). The following table gives an overview of this now obsolete system.
Historical classful network architecture
Size of network
 bit field
Size of rest
bit field
of networks
per network
Start addressEnd address
A0824128 (27)16,777,216 (224)
B10161616,384 (214)65,536 (216)
C1102482,097,152 (221)256 (28)
Classful network design served its purpose in the startup stage of the Internet, but it lacked scalability in the face of the rapid expansion of the network in the 1990s. The class system of the address space was replaced with Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) in 1993. CIDR is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) to allow allocation and routing based on arbitrary-length prefixes.
Today, remnants of classful network concepts function only in a limited scope as the default configuration parameters of some network software and hardware components (e.g. netmask), and in the technical jargon used in network administrators' discussions.

Private addresses

Early network design, when global end-to-end connectivity was envisioned for communications with all Internet hosts, intended that IP addresses be uniquely assigned to a particular computer or device. However, it was found that this was not always necessary as private networks developed and public address space needed to be conserved.
Computers not connected to the Internet, such as factory machines that communicate only with each other via TCP/IP, need not have globally unique IP addresses. Three non-overlapping ranges of IPv4 addresses for private networks were reserved in RFC 1918. These addresses are not routed on the Internet and thus their use need not be coordinated with an IP address registry.
Today, when needed, such private networks typically connect to the Internet through network address translation (NAT).
IANA-reserved private IPv4 network ranges
StartEndNo. of addresses
24-bit block (/8 prefix, 1 × A)
20-bit block (/12 prefix, 16 × B)
16-bit block (/16 prefix, 256 × C)
Any user may use any of the reserved blocks. Typically, a network administrator will divide a block into subnets; for example, many home routers automatically use a default address range of through (

IPv4 address exhaustion

Main article: IPv4 address exhaustion
High levels of demand have decreased the supply of unallocated Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) addresses available for assignment to Internet service providers and end user organizations since the 1980s. This development is referred to as IPv4 address exhaustion. IANA's primary address pool was exhausted on 3 February 2011, when the last five blocks were allocated to the five RIRs.[5][6] APNIC was the first RIR to exhaust its regional pool on 15 April 2011, except for a small amount of address space reserved for the transition to IPv6, intended to be allocated in a restricted process.[7]

IPv6 addresses

Main article: IPv6 address

Decomposition of an IPv6 address fromhexadecimal representation to its binary value.
The rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address space prompted the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to explore new technologies to expand the addressing capability in the Internet. The permanent solution was deemed to be a redesign of the Internet Protocol itself. This new generation of the Internet Protocol was eventually named Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in 1995.[3][4] The address size was increased from 32 to 128 bits (16 octets), thus providing up to 2128 (approximately3.403×1038) addresses. This is deemed sufficient for the foreseeable future.
The intent of the new design was not to provide just a sufficient quantity of addresses, but also redesign routing in the Internet by more efficient aggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. This resulted in slower growth of routing tables in routers. The smallest possible individual allocation is a subnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of the entire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization rates will be small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides the opportunity to separate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment, i.e. the local administration of the segment's available space, from the addressing prefix used to route traffic to and from external networks. IPv6 has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entire networks, should the global connectivity or the routing policy change, without requiring internal redesign or manual renumbering.
The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned for specific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficient routing. With a large address space, there is no need to have complex address conservation methods as used in CIDR.
All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include native support for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in other devices, such as residential networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia equipment, and network peripherals.

Private addresses

Just as IPv4 reserves addresses for private networks, blocks of addresses are set aside in IPv6. In IPv6, these are referred to as unique local addresses (ULA). RFC 4193reserves the routing prefix fc00::/7 for this block which is divided into two /8 blocks with different implied policies. The addresses include a 40-bit pseudorandom number that minimizes the risk of address collisions if sites merge or packets are misrouted.[8]
Early practices used a different block for this purpose (fec0::), dubbed site-local addresses.[9] However, the definition of what constituted sites remained unclear and the poorly defined addressing policy created ambiguities for routing. This address type was abandoned and must not be used in new systems.[10]
Addresses starting with fe80:, called link-local addresses, are assigned to interfaces for communication on the attached link. The addresses are automatically generated by the operating system for each network interface. This provides instant and automatic communication between all IPv6 host on a link. This feature is required in the lower layers of IPv6 network administration, such as for the Neighbor Discovery Protocol.
Private address prefixes may not be routed on the public Internet.

IP subnetworks

IP networks may be divided into subnetworks in both IPv4 and IPv6. For this purpose, an IP address is logically recognized as consisting of two parts: the network prefix and thehost identifier, or interface identifier (IPv6). The subnet mask or the CIDR prefix determines how the IP address is divided into network and host parts.
The term subnet mask is only used within IPv4. Both IP versions however use the CIDR concept and notation. In this, the IP address is followed by a slash and the number (in decimal) of bits used for the network part, also called the routing prefix. For example, an IPv4 address and its subnet mask may be and, respectively. The CIDR notation for the same IP address and subnet is, because the first 24 bits of the IP address indicate the network and subnet.

IP address assignment

Internet Protocol addresses are assigned to a host either anew at the time of booting, or permanently by fixed configuration of its hardware or software. Persistent configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address is assigned newly each time, this is known as using a dynamic IP address.


Static IP addresses are manually assigned to a computer by an administrator. The exact procedure varies according to platform. This contrasts with dynamic IP addresses, which are assigned either by the computer interface or host software itself, as in Zeroconf, or assigned by a server using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Even though IP addresses assigned using DHCP may stay the same for long periods of time, they can generally change. In some cases, a network administrator may implement dynamically assigned static IP addresses. In this case, a DHCP server is used, but it is specifically configured to always assign the same IP address to a particular computer. This allows static IP addresses to be configured centrally, without having to specifically configure each computer on the network in a manual procedure.
In the absence or failure of static or stateful (DHCP) address configurations, an operating system may assign an IP address to a network interface using state-less auto-configuration methods, such as Zeroconf.

Uses of dynamic address assignment

IP addresses are most frequently assigned dynamically on LANs and broadband networks by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). They are used because it avoids the administrative burden of assigning specific static addresses to each device on a network. It also allows many devices to share limited address space on a network if only some of them will be online at a particular time. In most current desktop operating systems, dynamic IP configuration is enabled by default so that a user does not need to manually enter any settings to connect to a network with a DHCP server. DHCP is not the only technology used to assign IP addresses dynamically. Dialup and some broadband networks use dynamic address features of the Point-to-Point Protocol.

Sticky dynamic IP address

sticky dynamic IP address is an informal term used by cable and DSL Internet access subscribers to describe a dynamically assigned IP address which seldom changes. The addresses are usually assigned with DHCP. Since the modems are usually powered on for extended periods of time, the address leases are usually set to long periods and simply renewed. If a modem is turned off and powered up again before the next expiration of the address lease, it will most likely receive the same IP address.

Address autoconfiguration

RFC 3330 defines an address block,, for the special use in link-local addressing for IPv4 networks. In IPv6, every interface, whether using static or dynamic address assignments, also receives a local-link address automatically in the block fe80::/10.
These addresses are only valid on the link, such as a local network segment or point-to-point connection, that a host is connected to. These addresses are not routable and like private addresses cannot be the source or destination of packets traversing the Internet.
When the link-local IPv4 address block was reserved, no standards existed for mechanisms of address autoconfiguration. Filling the void, Microsoft created an implementation that is called Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). APIPA has been deployed on millions of machines and has, thus, become a de facto standard in the industry. In RFC 3927, the IETF defined a formal standard for this functionality, entitled Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses.

Uses of static addressing

Some infrastructure situations have to use static addressing, such as when finding the Domain Name System (DNS) host that will translate domain names to IP addresses. Static addresses are also convenient, but not absolutely necessary, to locate servers inside an enterprise. An address obtained from a DNS server comes with a time to live, or caching time, after which it should be looked up to confirm that it has not changed. Even static IP addresses do change as a result of network administration (RFC 2072).


An IP address conflict occurs when two devices on the same local physical or wireless network claim to have the same IP address – that is, they conflict with each other. Since only one of the devices is supposed to be on the network at a time, the second one to arrive will generally stop the IP functionality of one or both of the devices. In many cases with modern Operating Systems, the Operating System will notify the user of one of the devices that there is an IP address conflict (displaying the symptom error message[11][12]) and then either stop functioning on the network or function very badly on the network, and the user will then be stumped as to how to resolve the conflict, probably considering the situation an emergency. In some unfortunate cases, both devices will function very badly on the network. In severe cases in which one of the devices is the gateway, the network will be crippled. Since IP addresses are assigned by multiple people and systems in multiple ways, any of them can be at fault.[13][14][15][16][17]


IP addresses are classified into several classes of operational characteristics: unicast, multicast, anycast and broadcast addressing.

Unicast addressing

The most common concept of an IP address is in unicast addressing, available in both IPv4 and IPv6. It normally refers to a single sender or a single receiver, and can be used for both sending and receiving. Usually, a unicast address is associated with a single device or host, but a device or host may have more than one unicast address. Some individual PCs have several distinct unicast addresses, each for its own distinct purpose. Sending the same data to multiple unicast addresses requires the sender to send all the data many times over, once for each recipient.

Broadcast addressing

Main article: Broadcasting (computing)
In IPv4 it is possible to send data to all possible destinations ("all-hosts broadcast"), which permits the sender to send the data only once, and all receivers receive a copy of it. In the IPv4 protocol, the address is used for local broadcast. In addition, a directed (limited) broadcast can be made by combining the network prefix with a host suffix composed entirely of binary 1s. For example, the destination address used for a directed broadcast to devices on the network is IPv6 does not implement broadcast addressing and replaces it with multicast to the specially-defined all-nodes multicast address.

Multicast addressing

multicast address is associated with a group of interested receivers. In IPv4, addresses through (the former Class D addresses) are designated as multicast addresses.[18] IPv6 uses the address block with the prefix ff00::/8 for multicast applications. In either case, the sender sends a single datagram from its unicast address to the multicast group address and the intermediary routers take care of making copies and sending them to all receivers that have joined the corresponding multicast group.

Anycast addressing

Like broadcast and multicast, anycast is a one-to-many routing topology. However, the data stream is not transmitted to all receivers, just the one which the router decides is logically closest in the network. Anycast address is an inherent feature of only IPv6. In IPv4, anycast addressing implementations typically operate using the shortest-path metric of BGP routing and do not take into account congestion or other attributes of the path. Anycast methods are useful for global load balancing and are commonly used in distributedDNS systems.

Public address

A public IP address, in common parlance, is a globally routable unicast IP address, meaning that the address is not an address reserved for use in private networks, such as those reserved by RFC 1918, or the various IPv6 address formats of local scope or site-local scope, for example for link-local addressing. Public IP addresses may be used for communication between hosts on the global Internet.

Modifications to IP addressing

IP blocking and firewalls

Firewalls perform Internet Protocol blocking to protect networks from unauthorized access. They are common on today's Internet. They control access to networks based on the IP address of a client computer. Whether using a blacklist or a whitelist, the IP more at