Tuesday, March 1, 2016

Who Says a Watched Pot Never Boils?, 1924

Political cartoon relating to the "Teapot Dome" scandal in the early 1920s, which involved feder. . . .

1. http://tpscongress.indiana.edu/public-eye/gallery/looks-out-for-itself/

National Register of Historic Places

Teapot Rock (Dome)

Natrona County

Date Added to Register

Monday, December 30, 1974

Smithsonian Number


Read all about it

Teapot Dome is an historic site of national significance over which developed a scandal of national proportions, involving California as well as Wyoming oil fields and involving high officials of the United States government and private enterprise. However, the dome itself is less visible than the rock for which it was named. Therefore, the nomination to the National Register of Historic Places pertains to the rock which is a visible symbol or reminder of that famous American scandal. Teapot Rock is an eroded sandstone formation located about 25 miles north of the city of Casper in the southwestern Powder River Basin. The formation which once looked like a teapot has given its name to a number of natural and man-made features of the surrounding landscape including a creek, townsite, oil development company, and one of the most famous oil fields in American history. About six miles east of the rock is the southern boundary of the Teapot Dome Naval Oil Reserve; 9,481 acres of land set aside in 1915 by presidential executive order as United States Naval Oil Reserve Number Three.

Teapot Dome: How a Presidential Scandal Led to a Teapot-Shaped Service Station

The Teapot Dome scandal of 1922-23 tarnished an entire US presidency and resulted in the first instance of a US Cabinet member being sent to prison for actions committed in office. It also resulted in the construction of an incredibly unique service station in the middle of the state of Washington that became a rather offbeat tourist attraction. How, then, did this Wyoming rock formation:
…lead to this kitschy Washington roadside attraction, and what did it have to do with the US presidency?
Teapot Dome
It all stems back to the short-lived presidency of Ohio’s Warren G. Harding, which occurred during a time after World War I when industry was rapidly switching from coal power to petroleum power, creating a large oil boom across the American west. A previous president, William Howard Taft, had established a system of oil reserves in California and Wyoming, of which three were ultimately set aside to supply the US Navy with oil. The reserves were located at Elk Falls, California; Buena Vista Hills, California; and Teapot Dome, Wyoming.
Teapot Rock atop Teapot Dome, Wyoming. The oil field itself is located to the top right. Source: Wvbailey,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teapot_WY_1.jpg. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported licence.
Taking office in January 1921, Harding was very keen on rewarding his friends and allies with powerful political positions, many of them rather financially lucrative (this network of associates would become known as the Ohio Gang as many of them had been in Harding’s circle since his days as a state politician). One of these men was Albert B. Fall, who Harding named as Secretary of the Interior. When Harding took office, he removed the naval petroleum reserves from naval control and placed them under Fall’s jurisdiction. It just so happened that Fall was friends with oil barons Harry F. Sinclair (he of Sinclair Oil fame) and Edward L. Doheny (the man who set off the first petroleum boom in Southern California). Fall promptly leased a portion of one of the Californian naval reserves to Doheny, and then in April 1922 leased the entire Teapot Dome reserve (3 837 ha, or 9 481 acres) to Sinclair. Fall would secretly pocket about US$504 000 (around US$6.56million today) in cash, loans, and gifts from Doheny and Sinclair for brokering the deal.
When Wyoming senator John Kendrick learned of the deal after one of his constituents (a small oil operator) complained, Kendrick requested an investigation on the Senate floor. During the investigation, records kept disappearing, and while Fall was able to hide most of the money in his cattle ranch, he forgot to cover up a $100 000 loan from Doheny. When this became public, it sent a shockwave through American politics that would resound for some time. The US Supreme Court would rule in 1927 that the naval oil reserves were obtained fraudulently and returned them to the Navy. Today, Teapot Dome is still owned by the Department of Energy.
Fall was fined US$100 000 and sentenced to a year in prison, the first US Cabinet member to be jailed for actions committed in office. Sinclair would be indicted for conspiracy to defraud the United States in October 1927, but the trial would be halted two weeks later when it was discovered Sinclair had hired a detective agency to shadow the jury. Sinclair was found guilty of criminal contempt of court spent six months in prison. Doheny, meanwhile, managed to be acquitted (yes, Fall was convicted for accepting an illegal bribe, but Doheny was found not guilty for issuing the bribe) and would actually go on to foreclose on Fall’s New Mexico once Fall no longer had the fund to pay him back. Other members of the Ohio Gang were also convicted for various other instances of bribery and fraud that occurred during the Harding presidency and sent to prison; some even committed suicide. Exhausted from scandal and not in the greatest health to begin with, Harding himself would not see the end of the trial nor even survive 1923, dying of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a tour of the western States. At two days short of 29 months, his was the shortest tenure of any US head of state of the 20th century.
Fortunately, the rest of the story is much lighter in tone. During the height of the scandal, a businessman in the burg of Zillah, Washington by the name of Jack Armstrong decided to capitalise on the Teapot Dome scandal that was rocking the nation during 1922 by hand-crafting a new filling station in the shape of a teapot next to his family’s general store. The Jacobs family bought the station six years later and operated it for many years, where it became a popular stop along US Route 12 for decades.
The Teapot Dome has been relocated twice. In 1978 the Interstate 82 highway was built through the Yakima Valley overtop of the lot where the station stood, forcing the owners to move. The giant teapot was disassembled piece-by-piece and reconstructed a short distance down the road away from the new road. At some point, it became known as the oldest continually operating gas station in the United States before, having been bypassed by the big new freeway,closing up shop in the 1980s.
$1.79 a gallon
The Teapot’s gas price sign, frozen in time at about US$1.20 cheaper than prices in the area were at the time this article was published in January 2013. Source: T. Lipper, http://www.flickr.com/photos/wafflechomper/2406733840/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic licence.
Teapot Dome Gas Station-Zillah, WA
A 2007 photo shows the window in the Teapot’s door vandalised. Source: G. Kingston,http://www.flickr.com/photos/kathrine/539968157/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic licence.
Despite its historic status (both the original Teapot Dome and its service station namesake are listed on the National Register of Historic Places), the Teapot Dome Service Station was left to flounder for years and fell into grave disrepair before the city of Zillah stepped in to save the station in 2007. Through fundraising, grants, and a loan, the city moved the building to a new location at the west entrance to Zillah and refurbished the teapot completely. In 2012, the Teapot Dome was reborn as Zillah’s tourist information centre, and (non-working) vintage gas pumps were reinstalled.
The Teapot Dome is hardly the only quirky building in Zillah. When a church affiliated to the Church of God opened in the city in 1987, it was quickly realised that the ‘Church of God, Zillah’ would be a rather punderful appellation. As such, while the church is officially named the Christian Worship Center, locals have always referred to it as the Church of God-Zillah, and the denomination decided to embrace it, erecting a wire-frame replica of Godzilla clutching a cross while holding a sign proclaiming ‘Jesus Saves’in the church’s parking lot.
While there may not be another teapot-shaped filling station anywhere else, there are all sorts of unique and kitschy stations out there. I’ve compiled even more gas station wackiness in my latest Google Sightseeing post.
Further Reading
Baskas, H. (2012). Teapot Dome Gas Station has a new home. Stuck At the Airport, 22 April 2012. Available athttp://stuckattheairport.com/2012/04/22/teapot-dome-gas-station-has-a-new-home/.  Accessed 23 January 2013.
City of Zillah (2007). Teapot. Available at http://www.cityofzillah.us/Teapot.html.  Accessed 23 January 2013.
Earls, S. (2000). Church of God-Zillah. Yakima Herald-Republic, 10 June 2000. Available athttp://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000610&slug;=4025861.  Accessed 23 January 2013.
Simkin, J. (n.d.). Harry F. Sinclair. Spartacus Editorial. Available athttp://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsinclairHF.htm. Accessed 23 January 2013.
Washington State Department of Archaeology & Historic Preservation (2012). Zillah Celebrates Teapot Dome Move & Rehab. 16 July 2012. Available at http://www.dahp.wa.gov/blog/2012/07/zillah-celebrates-teapot-dome-move-rehab/.  Accessed 23 January 2013.
Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (2013). National Register of Historic Places: Teapot Rock (Dome). Available at http://wyoshpo.state.wy.us/NationalRegister/Site.aspx?ID=297.  Accessed 23 January 2013.

Just E! Margin!!

Teapot Dome & Scandal

The Clear Day on a Bright Carve is the Rocks of the Present,
gifts of the time in the fact of a chisel,
how the hand to that Class it Call,
a Wyoming to speak.

There in evident return is the Ages on the Earth of Ma,
google the scope of Peer a Mids on the lanes of Mountains in Shapes,
so thy countenance multiplied for that 300 Million turned,
the show was a rub Bull to say that creeks Change??,
or show the Wears and the Tears of Rein.

The grate demonstrator from the stand to the pi as the tau is of grant it.

Direction to the Beach,
sand on the part,
waves to that River,
the Ocean on the lakes of Ponds in a tank??

Fore the ship of the concrete of Terms??,
I know must have been those Religions on the deems.

Course to the basque it??,
sun Burnt from the Heat??,
hot Pot hand Dills and Spa^Dom^Met^Door for the Radar gums???

Whom is the Marrow,
the blood of quench and thirst,
sucking on that is the bones??,
or is the late to Table let the Ketchup,
brand Dean names to say that Nouns are clever to the think upon my Think.

SFGATE on Behalf of The Napa Valley Register ~ Good News Ed, The Meows Have Announced A Delivery To You Specific, I just know Champagne Did IT!!

Litter of 17 puppies could be largest ever in California

Amy Graff Updated 11:09 am, Tuesday, March 1, 2016

A California sheepdog named Stella delivered 17 puppies on January 29, 2016. News of what might be the largest puppy litter in California history is spreading now.

loving Judy!!

It took eight people — one vet and seven technicians — to deliver what may be the largest litter of puppies in California earlier this year.

"I remember thinking that the the puppies would not stop coming," said Heidi Schwarz, a vet technician who assisted with the deliver at Barney & Russum Animal Clinic in Fairfield. "I was like where are all these puppies coming from?"

My big brother Ed is the Coolest Cat of All!!

A sheepdog named Stella of Napa is the mother who produced this impressive brood. Stella passed two puppies at home, and then her owner, John Costanzo of Napa Grass Farmer, brought her to Barney & Russum when she stopped passing more.

Schwarz says all 17 puppies have survived and as soon as the mother woke from surgery, they were able to nurse. "We had eight puppies nursing at a time," she said. "It was crazy."

The largest litter of puppies ever is 24, according to Guinness World Records.

Tia, a Neopolitan mastiff, owned by Damian Ward (UK) and Anne Kellegher (Ireland) of Manea, delivered via c-section on Nov. 29, 2004, in Cambridgeshire, U.K.

Courtesy of SFGATE very difficult to read article on site however there is a cute Video for my brother Ed to enjoy the rest of you that continue to place Ad's and than forge onto peoples minds the loss integrity of the article itself I trust that your personal watch will be score to such touch chin attitude: http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/largest-litter-puppies-California-sheepdog-6863140.php#photo-9480636

CBS Per>Forms The Vlad At The Chimney To Just Say Wills However A Title Is Not Not Said, The Secret of the Universe is Choice!!

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"The Duke of Cambridge" redirects here. For other people known as Duke of Cambridge, see Duke of Cambridge.
"Prince William" redirects here. For other uses, see Prince William (disambiguation).
Prince William
Duke of Cambridge (more)
Prince William February 2015.jpg
The Duke of Cambridge in Japan in 2015
Born21 June 1982 (age 33)
St Mary's Hospital, London
SpouseCatherine Middleton (m. 2011)
IssuePrince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Full name
William Arthur Philip Louis[fn 1]
FatherCharles, Prince of Wales
MotherDiana, Princess of Wales
ReligionChurch of England
Prince William, Duke of CambridgeKGKTADC(P) (William Arthur Philip Louis;[fn 1] born 21 June 1982) is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his father.
William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews. He spent parts of a gap year in ChileBelize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet, being commissioned in the Blues and Royals Regiment. In April 2008, he qualified as a pilot (earning his wings) by completing pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell. He then underwent helicopter flying training in order to become a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His more than seven-and-a-half years of full-time service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013.[3][4]
William married Catherine Middleton, on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Hours prior to the event, he was created Duke of CambridgeEarl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus. Their first child, Prince George of Cambridge, was born on 22 July 2013, and their second, Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, was born on 2 May 2015.

Early life[edit]

William, the first child of the Prince and Princess of Wales, was born at St Mary's Hospital, London, on 21 June 1982 at 9.03 pm.[5][6][7] He weighed 7 pounds 1.5 ounces (3.22 kg).[7] A week later on 28 June his name was announced by Buckingham Palace: William Arthur Philip Louis.[5] He was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palaceon 4 August 1982 (the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) by the Archbishop of CanterburyRobert Runcie.[8] William had six godparents: former King Constantine II of Greece (his paternal second cousin once removed); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (his paternal first cousin twice removed); the Duchess of WestminsterLady Susan HusseyLord Romsey (his paternal second cousin once removed); and Sir Laurens van der Post.[5][9] He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905.[10] William was affectionately called "Wombat" by his parents[11] or "Wills" (the latter a name coined by the press).[12]
At age seven, William reportedly told his mother that he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her; a statement to which his brotherHarry responded: "Oh, no you can't. You've got to be King."[13] William's first public appearance was on 1 March 1991 (Saint David's Day), during an official visit of his parents toCardiff, Wales. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, thereby demonstrating that he was left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the side of the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club. He did not lose consciousness, but suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar.[14] In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar". He was reported to have said, "I call it (the scar) that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all".[15] Guy Witcher portrayed him as an eight-year old Prince in the 1996 film, Princess in Love.[16]
His mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children. She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless. She bought them typical teenage items, such as video games.[17] Diana, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, then aged 15, along with his brother who was 12, and father, was staying at Balmoral Castle at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until his sons woke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death.[18] At his mother's funeral, William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Abbey.[citation needed]


Chapel of Eton College
William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.[19] Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by Rory Stewart.[20] At Ludgrove he also participated in football—along with swimming, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, and cross country running. William sat for the entrance exam to Eton College and was admitted. There, he studied Geography, Biology and History of Art atA-Level, obtaining an 'A' in Geography, a 'C' in Biology and a 'B' in History of Art.[21][22][23] At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team, and took up water polo.[24] The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (William's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended); however, both Diana's father and brother had attended Eton.[17] The Royal Family and the tabloid press agreed that William would be allowed to study free of paparazzi intrusion in exchange for regular updates of the Prince's life. The chairman of the Press Complaints CommissionJohn Wakeham, said of the arrangement: "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."[17]
St Salvator's Quad, University of St. Andrews
After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize,[25]worked in English dairy farms, visited Africa,[26] and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the Raleigh Internationalprogramme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young teachers, sharing in the common household chores, including cleaning the toilet, and also volunteered as the guest radio jockey for the local radio station.[25]
By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled, under the name William Wales, at the University of St Andrews.[27][28]News of this caused a temporary increase in the number of applications to St Andrews, mostly from young women who wanted an opportunity to meet him.[29] The extra attention did not deter him, though, and he embarked on a degree course in Art History, later changing his main subject to Geography, and going on to earn a Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours. While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004.[24] He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity.[12]
William returned to St Andrews in February 2011 as Patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal.[30]

Activities and career[edit]

William began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas royal tour was with his parents to Australia and New Zealand in 1983,[31] a decision made by the Princess of Wales that was considered to be unconventional; not only was William so young, but both the first and second in line for the throne would be travelling together.[17] However, he accompanied either both parents or his father on subsequent tours, and, upon graduation from university, began to undertake duties of his own, as well as obtaining experience in the private workforce when he worked with land management at Chatsworth House and interned at HSBC.[17]

Military career[edit]

Military training and secondments[edit]

William in his flight lieutenant's uniform in 2010.
Having decided to follow a military career, in October 2005 William attended the four-day Regular Commissions Board at Westbury in Wiltshire where he underwent selection to judge his suitability to become an army officer. Having passed selection, William went up to theRoyal Military Academy Sandhurst in January 2006.[32] Successfully completing the course, William commissioned as a Second Lieutenant from Sandhurst on 15 December 2006, the graduation parade being attended by the Queen and the Prince of Wales, along with other members of the Royal Family. William officially received his commission as a lieutenant at midnight. With his rank obtained, as "Lieutenant Wales" (a name based on his father's title, Prince of Wales), he followed his younger brother[33] into the Blues and Royals as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent four months in training for the post at Bovington Camp, Dorset.
Once officially enrolled and commissioned in the armed forces, William wanted active service; in this there were recent precedents: his great-great-uncle Edward VIII, when Prince of Wales, served in France during the First World War; his great-grandfather King George VIserved during World War I with the Navy at the Battle of Jutland and in France with the Air Force; and his paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, served with distinction during World War II. More recently, his uncle Prince Andrew, Duke of York, served in theFalklands War.
Though Major-General Sir Sebastian Roberts, General Officer commanding the Household Division, had said William's deployment was possible, the Prince's position as second in line to the throne, and the convention of ministers advising against the person in that position being put into dangerous situations, cast doubts on William's ability to see combat. These doubts increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007, due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to training in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, obtaining his commission as a sub-lieutenant in the former and flying officer in the latter (both broadly equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the army). With this complete, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force, undergoing an intensive four-month training course at RAF Cranwell.[34][35] Upon completing the course on 11 April 2008, he was presented with his RAF wingsby his father,[36] who had himself received his wings after training at the same college.[37] During this secondment Prince William flew to Afghanistan in a C-17 Globemaster, which repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson.[38] William had been affectionately known by his fellow airmen as "Billy the Fish", a pun on the name "William Wales".[39]
William was then seconded to train with the navy for two months, from June to August 2008, during which time he spent three weeks at the Britannia Royal Naval College, training on units of the surface fleet and submarines, as well as with the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Marines.[40] He spent a day on submarine HMS Talent.[41] During a five-week deployment on HMS Iron Duke in the Caribbean, he took part in a joint operation with the United States Coast Guard that identified and captured a speedboat carrying 900 kg of cocaine worth approximately £40 million.[42][43] The ship also took part in other raids.[44]
Owing to William's future role, a long-term career in the military was considered out of the question; due to his position his desire to see active service was always unlikely to be granted. William originally joined the military on a short-service commission lasting three years. However, it was announced in September 2008 that he would be extending his time in the forces, first by taking on another secondment in 2008 (including working at the MOD and non-operational flying with the Army Air Corps).[45] Then it was announced that he would transfer from the Army to the RAF in order to train as a full-time search and rescue helicopter pilot, a role that would enable him to take an active role in the armed forces without being deployed on combat operations.

Royal Air Force service[edit]

Sea King helicopter being flown by William in 2010.
In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to Flight Lieutenant. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury, where he had been under the instruction of Squadron Leader Craig Finch.[46] On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley on Anglesey to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter and graduated from this course on 17 September 2010.[47] This made him the first member of the British Royal Family since Henry VII to live in Wales.[48]
It was announced on 15 April 2010 that William would remain at RAF Valley for his operational tour, being assigned to C Flight No. 22 Squadron[49] and initially performing co-pilot duties.[50] His operational tour was expected to last 30 to 36 months.[51]
His first rescue mission (as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King Helicopter) was a response to an emergency call from the Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. William, who was excited to finally take part in an active mission, and the other three members of the crew, flew from their base at RAF Valley to an offshore gas rig in Morecambe Bay, northwest England. A man who had suffered an apparent heart attack on the rig was airlifted to a local hospital.[52] In November 2011, he participated in a search and rescue mission involving a sinking cargo ship in the Irish Sea. As co-pilot, he helped rescue two sailors, who were then transported to a hospital in Bangor.[53]
William deployed to the Falkland Islands for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight, beginning in February and ending in March 2012.[54][55] The deployment of the Duke to the Falklands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the conflict (2 April 1982) was condemned by Argentina as a "provocative act".[56][57]
In June 2012 Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or pilot in charge of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot.[58] His active service as an RAF search and rescue pilot ended in September 2013.[3][4]

Air ambulance pilot[edit]

EC135 helicopter used by the East Anglian Air Ambulance
In 2014, it was announced that the Duke would take on a full-time role as a pilot with the East Anglian Air Ambulance, based at Cambridge Airport. Although a qualified military pilot able to operate as a Sea King captain, William needed a civil pilot's licence and further training before being permitted to take command of the Air Ambulance. The position is paid, but it was announced that the Duke would donate his full salary (estimated to be approximately £40,000 per year) to the Air Ambulance charity.[59] The Duke of Cambridge spent time atNorwich Airport as part of his training as an EAAA pilot.[60] On 13 July 2015, the Duke started his new job, which he felt was a natural progression from his previous job as a search-and-rescue pilot with the Royal Air Force.[61]

Official duties[edit]

At the age of 21, Prince William was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was in Nigeria to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2003. For his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a tour of Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Fair and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport.[62] By July 2005, he was on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand, to participate in World War II commemorations on behalf of his grandmother in her role as Queen of New Zealand. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity, The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were interviewed together for the first time by television personalities Ant & Dec.[62] In July 2007, Prince William accompanied his grandmother's cousin the Duke of Kent, who is President of the UK Scout Association, in opening the 21st World Scout Jamboree, celebrating the centennial of the founding of the Scout Movement.
Tina Brown said in her 2007 biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, that Prince William had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia,[63]though the idea was considered doubtful by then Prime Minister of Australia John Howard, who said: "We have for a long time embraced the idea that the person who occupies that post should be in every way an Australian citizen."[64]
In 2009, a private office was set up for William by his grandmother, with Sir David Manning as his adviser.[65]
Manning personally accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington on behalf of the Queen; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori chief.[66] William succeeded Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth President of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.[67]
In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, after the recent earthquake,[68] and addressed the memorial service at Hagley Park, on behalf of his grandmother.[69]Upon leaving New Zealand, William travelled to Australia, to visit areas badly affected by flooding in the states of Queensland and Victoria.[70][71] After twice accompanying his parents to Canada, Prince William, with his wife, toured the country and visited the United States in June and July 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill.[72][73] On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark.[74][75]In September 2012, they toured SingaporeMalaysiaTuvalu and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Jubilee celebrations.
In April 2014, the Duke and Duchess undertook a royal tour together to New Zealand and Australia. From 20–21 September, he took his wife's place on a tour of Malta, for the island's 50th anniversary of its independence from Britain.[76] On 21 October, the Duke and Duchess met the President of Singapore Tony Tan as part of his state visit to the United Kingdom.[77] In December 2014, he met U.S. President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, publicly advocating against illegal wildlife trade.[78]
In March 2015, Prince William visited BeijingShanghai and Yunnan in China from 1 to 4 March. Chinese President Xi Jinping welcomed him as he began the first visit to the mainland by a member of the British royal family in almost three decades.[79][80][81][82]

Personal interests[edit]

William playing polo in July 2007
William and his father, Charles, after a polo match at Ham Polo Club,London
Following his parents' examples, William took interest in various causes from a relatively early age in his mother's charitable work with HIV/AIDS aid and prevention, and the Prince of Wales' work with the natural environment and the inner-city disadvantaged, directed William into those areas. He also showed a desire to focus on the needy in Africa, sometimes working with his brother's charity, Sentebale.

Humanitarian and environmental causes[edit]

William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s, when his mother began to take her two sons to visit shelters and clinics for those suffering from the disease. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries that were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami.[83] Later, in September, William granted hispatronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless.[84][85] During the period when his mother had been patron of Centrepoint, he had accompanied her on visits to its headquarters and projects.
William also worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden Hospital for two days of work experience in 2005, as well as helping out in the medical research, catering, and fund raising departments.[84] The same year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with a mountain rescue team.[83] In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations (his mother had also previously been patron of the Royal Marsden Hospital) and he became attracted to Mountain Rescue England and Wales in order to, in his words, "highlight and celebrate the vital, selfless and courageous work of our mountain rescue organisations".[84]
Prince William also became a patron of the Tusk Trust in December 2005,[84] a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa.[86] He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Saying "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation",[87] he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a 5,000-mile (8,000 km) bike ride across the African continent in 2007. In 2010, he became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives.[88]
In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead.[89] The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.[90][91][92][93][94]


William plays polo for charitable causes. He is a fan of football and supports Aston Villa.[95] He became President of England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007 (supporting the Queen as patron of the WRU).[84] The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy, with some believing it would have been more fitting to name the trophy after Ray Gravell.[96][97][98]
In 2006, William, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in running one mile to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association.[84] In 2013 he succeeded his grandfather The Duke of Edinburgh as President of the UK charity Fields in Trust, formerly the National Playing Fields Association.[99]
William and his brother are both enthusiastic motorcyclists, with William owning a Ducati 1198 S Corse.
In May 2014 the Duke followed in the footsteps of his father and grandfather to become President of the British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC).[100]

Courtship and marriage[edit]

The newly married Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on the balcony of Buckingham Palace


During Prince William's years at university, he participated in university life and said: "I'm not a party animal, despite what some people might think."[17] As with his father before him, William's private life became the subject of tabloid speculation, especially around his relationship with Catherine Middleton, who had been one of William's university flatmates and whom William began dating in 2003. Middleton attended William's passing-out parade at Sandhurst, which was the first high-profile event that she attended as his guest. The relationship between them was followed so closely that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of a royal wedding and the retail chainWoolworths produced memorabilia bearing the likenesses of the couple.[101] Media attention became so intense that William asked paparazzi to keep their distance from Middleton.[101]
It was reported in April 2007 that the couple had split,[101] though Middleton, in June, attended a party at Lulworth Camp as the guest of Prince William and in July the Concert for Diana, which had been organised by Princes William and Harry. In subsequent months, she accompanied William on holiday and joined the Royal Family on private outings and at public events.

Engagement and wedding[edit]

On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that William and Catherine were to marry; the couple became engaged in Kenya in October. The engagement ring given by William to Catherine was that which had belonged to his mother.
The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge at the official Canada Day celebration in Ottawa, 2011, during their first royal tour outside the United Kingdom
The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London.[102] Catherine and William chose to break with royal protocol and, like Diana, Princess of Wales, omit any vow by Catherine that she "obey" her husband.[103] A few hours prior to the ceremony, William's new titles of Duke of CambridgeEarl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced,[104][105][106] as is customary for princes on the occasion of their weddings.[107] The titles became official on 26 May 2011, when Letters Patent to that effect were signed and recorded on the Roll of the Peerage.[108]


The Duchess of Cambridge's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012.[109] She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing, St Mary's Hospital, London, where Prince William himself had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to a baby boy—Prince George of Cambridge—with Prince William present.[110][111]
On 8 September 2014, it was announced that the Duchess of Cambridge was pregnant with her second child.[112] She was admitted on 2 May 2015 to the same wing of the hospital where she first gave birth. Later that day, she gave birth to a baby girl—Princess Charlotte of Cambridge—with Prince William present.[113]


William is godfather to:

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 21 June 1982 – 29 April 2011His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales
  • 29 April 2011 – presentHis Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge
    • in Scotland29 April 2011 – presentHis Royal Highness The Earl of Strathearn[116][117][118]
The Duke's style and title in full is His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip Louis, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, Baron Carrickfergus, Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter,[119] Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle,[116] Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen[120]
As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, the children of the Prince of Wales use the title of "prince" or "princess" before their Christian name and their father's territorial designation after it. Thus, Prince William was styled as "Prince William of Wales". Such area-based surnames are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they are given a peerage of their own,[121] such as when Prince William was given his dukedom.
For the male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, however, there is currently some uncertainty over the correct form of family surname to use, or whether there even is a surname. The Queen has stipulated all her male-line descendants who do not bear the titular dignity of prince shall use Mountbatten-Windsor as their family surname (although Letters Patent exist stipulating the name Windsor, but with the same caveat). According to their flight suits as seen in television interviews, Princes William and Harry both used Wales as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.[122]
On the morning of his wedding, it was announced the Queen would confer the hereditary titles Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus upon William.[104]The letters patent received the great seal on 26 May 2011.[108]

Military ranks[edit]


Accompanied by his father, Prince William proceeds to St George's Chapel to be installed as a Knight of the Garter.
Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter,[135] and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[136] The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Prince Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.



Honorary military appointments[edit]

Canada Canada
United Kingdom United Kingdom




Arms of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Coat of Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg
Prince William was granted a personal coat of arms on his 18th birthday. It is based on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, with a white (or silver) label with three points, the centre point bearing a red clam shell (an "escallop"), to distinguish it from the arms of other members of the Royal Family. The escallop is drawn from the Spencer coat of arms, a reference to his mother, who was the daughter of the Earl Spencer.[147]
21 June 2000
Upon a coronet of the children of the Heir Apparent, the royal helm Or
Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (England); 2nd, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules (Scotland); 3rd, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (Ireland).
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
Other elements
The whole distinguished by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an escallop Gules.
Royal Standard of Prince William.svg The Duke of Cambridge's personal Royal Standard is that of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, labelled for difference as in his arms.
Royal Standard of Prince William (in Scotland).svg The Earl of Strathearn's personal standard in Scotland follows the pattern of the Royal Standard used in Scotland, labelled for difference.
As the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, Prince William's coat of arms has a label of three points.[148] The escallop (seashell) alludes to his late mother Diana, Princess of Wales, whose Spencer coat of arms includes three escallops Argent.
In September 2013, the Queen granted a conjugal coat of arms to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, consisting of their individual arms displayed side by side, beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.[149]

Personal standard for Canada[edit]

The Canadian royal standard of the Duke of Cambridge
The Duke of Cambridge also holds a personal royal standard for Canada, consisting of the shield of the Canadian Royal Arms defaced with both a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves and shells, within which is a depiction William's cypher (a Wsurmounted by a coronet), and a white label of three points, charged with a red shell.[150][151][152]


Prince William is a member of the House of Windsor. By direct paternal ancestry, via his grandfather the Duke of Edinburgh, he is a descendant of Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg from the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses, and more specifically thecadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg, founded by William's paternal ancestor Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. William's ancestors on the male line include five kings: Christian I of DenmarkFrederick I of DenmarkChristian III of DenmarkChristian IX of Denmarkand George I of Greece, and also eleven counts of Oldenburg, two dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, five dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, and one duke ofSchleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.[153]
Via his mother, William descends from the Spencer family, the Earl Spencer, and the Baron Fermoy family, and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, andCharles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, two of the illegitimate sons of King Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne to descend from Charles I, and the first to descend from Charles II.[154][155]
William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather Theodore Forbes, a Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian".[155] Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed she was Armenian.[156] In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm that Eliza Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.[154][157][158][159]