Sunday, December 20, 2015
that Hand up to the feather quilt talking the scene on the grass in the lawns of the mowed sew sigh it Tee,
a basic finders fed to grain the masses on the elocution of the marbles on the role of thunders Turkey flies,
flight on the marrow to the thick of the Night Owe 'K' what's a Bravo??
Raised in the meld of the Hottest of the whoa's,
on with the carriage to shoulder the luck key star to speak,
down with the lyrics touching the out turned lei,
with no sucking the thumb!!
Belly grapes with hops,
bun knee and bell oh's,
wow it's that merry go wanna,
do it with the hand sign,
did you done with the far May suit a Coal??,
oh Yes said Society for the Most EST does not need denial as the Scripts pear a phrase the Shift!!
Heave on the chuck call to number Hi the stick in the are stuck with that fill in the blank for yous barrel of Pick Sole,,
its the swells,
its the blues,
its the beaten,
its the deads,
its the packs,
its the pain,
its the locks,
its the fries,
its the powder,
its the point of finger,
its the fist,
its the rim jobs,
its the best of the shop,
its the fact that society is to scared to stop,
its the fear,
its the fright,
its the numb,
its the shrugged,
its the News,
its the Live,
its the grave,
its the curb,
its the bit,
its the saddled,
its the bench,
its the court,
its the calendar,
its the days,
its the facts,
its the palms,
its the pictures,
its the Mind,
its the brain,
its the horror,
its the nightmares,
its the daymares,
its the flashbacks,
its the sadness,
its the stipend,
its the fax on the daisy from the bulb of the blossom of the sunshine that springs the fertile to spread like a . . . . . . . . .
right it like a correct shin did to the patience on the Bakery of the 13th Floor of the Worlds deaf,
the people moot,
and each every person that is dead buried or in a place that cannot be readily hugged today,
this is from the base Meant of soar to takes door,
for all know that once you are the drink in the month of Swallow,
a whistle kettles and the steam is like a water based lice on the oats meal.
No wonder the world at large in this country is lock on the Mentality of the version to spinners on railed,
the shout from the National Media Boards on the Overbroadcasting to special Speech touching Tax on commerce,
to grate the destination a commercial for the pound ding a ling gongs of the feat on stations led LED.
Spank the paddling or to that is the breakfast of America in the dead Walking dead a Wake to the ashes,
remains of the daisy trades to glow the flowers as the Text to the Turf mulled on the sigh duh to brae!!
Mules on the Horses to the Donkey of the pen the Tale on the Threads of the helm of Channel lean,
that go to the mow Nap owe *leads to ghost the Circle on the Zombie encouragement as the course,
push Push the pump in Tell ankles that Operation sick Nest is silks to the Jock keys on the scrub Missions,
paid to Talk Show on Course is the Sir Viced or is it Serviced to be Math a Mat ticks on the Pulse sing,
pulsing the heart to those grapes of Table Wines on the sell or the bottlers Massage the scroll Ur to fear fright and pup Pets string.
Shamble the scrabble to Scramble eggs beater soup the skull on cross bones to throw,
down on the Dice eat to game bull the terminology like!!,
Trend ding the Tom thumb to Face book and the gotta Have a gum.
Shoe on the gated Horses for the riders of the Golden Gate have Had the supper type for dinner Out,
entry feeds to grains and Salt tea leaves on the cups and Sauce Sir in the saddle Not on the saddle,
girth of the belt to the tight End on the written to that dressage of the Polo Field track on divide.
Ground Central to the Nation of contemplate this is not a Cry Wolf forget and Wake on the Albatross beach,
the freight is the Numbers 10:2 to that Luke of 15:8,
that is the thermal Wares to comprehend this gin on the Ice of cube in a Shotglass on the Drink stunner of Strummed,
that Guitar to the pick Awe haw Moment once a Comment that took the write to the shift of the jaw,
brace the gear with a steady on the Cinch and that is the Coffee on the cream of the Spoons in the ladder Day bisque`d!!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Lead (disambiguation).
"cross-fire" redirects here. For weapons fire term, see crossfire. For other uses, see crossfire (disambiguation).
Lead refers to which set of legs, left or right, leads or advances forward to a greater extent when a quadruped animal is cantering,galloping, or leaping. The feet on the leading side touch the ground forward of its partner. On the "left lead", the animal's left legs lead. The choice of lead is of special interest in horse riding.
A lead change refers to an animal, usually a horse, moving in a canter or gallop, changing from one lead to the other. There are two basic forms of lead change: simple and flying. It is very easy to define the correct lead from the incorrect lead. When a horse is executing the correct lead, the inside front and hind legs reach farther forwards than the outside legs.
In a transverse or lateral or united canter and gallop, the hind leg on the same side as the leading foreleg (the lateral hindleg) advances more. In horses this is the norm.
In a rotatory or diagonal or disunited canter and gallop, the hind leg on the opposite side (the diagonal hindleg) advances more. In horses, it is more often than not an undesirable gait form, also known as rotary and round galloping, and as moving disunited, cross-firing, and cross-cantering. In animals such as dogs, deer, and elk, however, this form of the gait is the norm.
Some authorities define the leading leg in the singular form as the last to leave the ground before the one or two periods of suspension within each stride. In these cases, because the canter has only one moment of suspension, the leading leg is considered to be the foreleg. Because in some animals the gallop has two moments of suspension, some authorities recognize a lead in each pair of legs, fore and hind. So when an animal is in a rotatory gait, it is called disunited, due to different leading legs in the front and hind.
Usage in horse sports
A horse is better balanced when on the correct lead of the canter, that is to say, the lead which corresponds to the direction of travel. If a horse is on the wrong lead, it may be unbalanced and will have a much harder time making turns. However, there is an exception to this general rule, the counter canter, or counter-lead, a movement used in upper-level dressage, where a horse may be deliberately asked for what would normally be the "wrong" lead in order to show obedience and balance.
The standard canter is movement where the horse travels in a transverse canter bent slightly in the direction of the leading inside front and rear legs. In standard horse showcompetition, travel on the inside "lead" is almost always considered correct, and horses on the outside lead or those performing a disunited (rotatory) canter are penalized. The only exceptions are when a counter-canter is specifically requested, or in some timed events where leads are not evaluated.
In equestrian competition, a show ring "hand gallop," or "gallop in hand" is a true lengthening of stride. However, the horse remains in control and excess speed is penalized. Usually the constraints of a show arena and the presence of other animals prevent the gait from extending into the four-beat form of the racing gallop.
The counter-canter is a movement in which the animal travels a curved path on the outside transverse lead. For example, while on a circle to the left, the horse is on the right lead. When performing a counter-canter, the horse is slightly bent in the direction of the leading legs, but opposite to the line of travel.
The counter-canter is primarily used as a training movement, improving balance, straightness, and attention to the aids. It is used as a stepping-stone to the flying lead change. It is also a movement asked for in upper level dressage tests.
Most riders begin asking for the counter-canter by riding through a corner on the inside lead, then performing a very shallow loop on the long side of the arena, returning to the track in counter-canter. As the horse becomes better at the exercise, the rider may then make the loop deeper, and finally perform a 20-meter circle in counter-canter.
In polo, the counter canter is often used in anticipation of a sudden change of direction. For example, the horse travels a large arc to the right while staying on the left lead, then suddenly turns sharply to the left with a burst of speed and on the correct lead.
Rotatory canter and gallop
In the rotatory gait, often called "cross-firing," "cross-cantering," or a "disunited canter," the horse balances in beat two on both legs on one side of its body, and in beats one and three on the other side. This produces a distinctive rotary or twisting motion in the rider's seat. For the majority of horses and riders this rotary motion is awkward, unbalanced and could be dangerous. Eadweard Muybridge illustrated both rotatory and transverse canters but did not stress the difference of lead.
In equestrian disciplines in which gait is judged, the rotatory canter (called disunited canter or cross-canter in most rule books) is considered a fault and penalized. However, in horse racing, the rotatory gallop (there often called round gallop) not only is common at the start of races but also is about 5 miles per hour faster than the transverse gallop.
Lead changes are important in many riding disciplines. In horse racing, when a horse is galloping, the leading leg may tire, resulting in the horse slowing down. If the lead is changed, the horse will usually "find another gear" or be able to maintain its pace. Because horses race counter-clockwise in North America, a racehorse is usually trained to lead with the left leg while rounding the turn for balance, but switch to the right lead on the straightaways between the turns to rest the left
Changes of lead are asked for in some dressage tests, and in the dressage phase of eventing. Degree of difficulty increases with each level, from simple changes, to single flying changes, to multiple flying changes within fewer and fewer strides (known in this context as tempi changes). They are judged on their smoothness, promptness, and the submission of the horse.
In reining and working cow horse flying lead changes are an integral part of nearly all patterns except for those at the most novice levels. They performed as part of a pattern, usually in a figure eight, and illustrate a high degree of training and responsiveness. A good flying lead change appears effortless both in the horse's actions and in the rider's cues. The horse will not speed up or slow down or display resentment (i.e. by switching its tail excessively) or hesitation. Controlled speed is desired in reining competition, and the faster a horse moves while properly executing the flying change, the higher the score.
In jumping, including show jumping, eventing, and hunter competition, the flying change is essential, as a horse on the incorrect lead may become unbalanced on the turn, and then have an unbalanced take-off and may hit a rail. It is also possible that the horse will fall should he be asked to make a tight turn. For show hunters, a horse is penalized for a poor or missed flying change. In show jumping and the eventing jumping phases, the flying change is not judged, but correct leads are recommended should the rider wish to stay balanced enough to jump each fence with the horse's maximum power and agility.
The simple change is a way to change leads on a horse that has not yet learned how to perform a flying change. In most cases, riders change leads by performing a few steps of the trot, before coming back to the opposite lead of the canter. However, a true simple change asks for the horse to perform a canter-walk (or halt)-canter transition. This requires more balance from the horse, and more finesse in timing the aids from the rider. Simple changes going through the walk are used as stepping stones for the flying change, asking the horse for more self-carriage that is needed for the flying change. The canter-halt-canter transition is becoming more and more popular, especially at the higher levels of competition, where judges are now beginning to specify a simple change through the halt, as it requires a greater degree of control by the rider and balance by the horse.
The flying change is a lead change performed by a horse in which the lead changes at the canter while in the air between two strides. It is often seen in dressage, where the horse may do several changes in sequence (tempi changes), in reining as part of the pattern, or in jumping events, where a horse will change lead as it changes direction on the course.
While a single change is often performed to change direction, dressage competition adds tempi changes at the upper levels. Tempi changes are very difficult movements, as the horse is required to perform multiple flying changes in a row. In a test, tempi changes may requested every stride (one-tempis), every two strides (two tempis), three strides (threes), or four strides (fours). The number of strides per change asked in tests begins at four, to give the horse and rider more time to prepare, and as the horse and rider become more proficient the number decreases to one-tempis. When a horse performs one-tempi changes, it often looks as if it is skipping. They may be performed across the diagonal or on a circle.
Comparison of transverse and rotatory gaits
These tables outline the sequence of footfalls (beats) in the canter and gallop, the animal on the right lead.
|Footfall 1||Left hind||Right hind|
|Footfall 2||Left fore and right hind||Left fore and left hind|
|Footfall 3||Right fore||Right fore|
|Footfall 1||Left hind||Right hind|
|Footfall 2||Right hind||Left hind|
|Suspension (in some animals)|
|Footfall 3||Left fore||Left fore|
|Footfall 4||Right fore||Right fore|
The decade of the 1960's on the scene Was called hit the Streets of the City time and Stern,
that waltz thorough to the Avenues on the sunset was the Horizon of a truth called lies,
that sand deed for the From to the cent of Some on the able bath to hose,
nylons on the record to seat the needle in the Hey stack on the National Media denials of Sat.!!
Talk a bearing to the carriage of this grain of Stand to the truss of the Country is roof topped Snow dens,
grabbing that Bottle of pharma Suit a Calls to tax the fountains of the skid Rum,
barrels of wrapped to the touch of handling the after before the At Festival of love!!
In the most obvious of Case to this Countries believe is that the Trains stationed in on the Peace I.D.,
than at the sigh a Tiff ick it ran it to the Mass populus to grape the Turbines on the swine,
the swish of Swindled to craft the Which is the Term and Which is the craft turned to legal grounders!!
Pitch to the Special ask not the Dock turned as this Pronunciation is a Sturdy on the bridle of this bit,
pieced across the state buy State to bring the Hey Stock to the would Stalk the tank with the Pans,
hand to Mouth on the feed to Increase the dollar on the Price Fixed ornament as the bids!!
Treed in And on the found is the glove Box answering the question of the advertised as at Christmas,
nicely ribbons for the paper on the Traps to voice the gift as the commercial Tea 'V' on a move ease,
ewe on the moose to elephant a bout with food at the tab lets loan,
forest and the groves of switch hitters as the bats on the Brain and show bodies Home!!
Width the years on the growth to the liars and Traits,
discussion fallen on the sound to Upper lift by the ignoring the Twined,
baled like the Swather is not the Baler of the Mills once in the Field are Now the filed on Record.
Down to the local Pharmacy not for the Fountain Drink,
instead its the list of the Files on the Pill takers to House a Rest!!
Think hours to tanked from the To,
deer in the rainbow??,
night the hour on the Minute timers,
beep Beep goes the Coyote on the hoots of the Owl gone to the sigh a lit,
anger every lair has gone toss the speak to abbreviate the scar on text bye Text screened for the Spiders Web!!
Crawling down the sound to organize the valve of measure on the shells of Humanity left right foot beat,
on the side Walks of the curb to the act Shin till the Most Popular of Society social on the dirt of lawns??,
this Nation has tarp`d the suffocation with by law to drug the anchors as the breezing seas.
There are 321,715,715 people in the United States of America. If everyone in the U.S. lined up single file, the line would stretch around the Earth almost 7 times. Almost one-fifth of Americans now take psychotropic drugs to cope with everyday life, that's a lot of people.
In the essential of the learn and Lens is the what the Flats on the Haight in the Flame,
hot on the ticket to that Purchase of The Elbow Room!!,
class Technique to double Clique on the crowd of Showers and H booth on the 10th and Balboa!!
Organs in House to pipe the Tums with language of the World War on the dumps,
round that to this Ink once the Staple now the Sip of drinking the venue as the Chute,
owe is the Bloods to Tiger that Jaguar on the Teak knowing a Straw.
this Country ran those Tour In Buses with groups Plied by pleat,
skirts to the Show on the concerts of Shore,
the city on the grown has barn,
stable to that Men Tally a Tee!!
At the Golden Gate a park on the Scene remember that Grain,
the Water fountain to Tall for the Pony riders to see the reined,
but the shirts were shipped No not really cause those badgers couldn't canter,
however the thought of the ponds and lathe goes to the Board games on this pane.
So essence of the Lesson on the Clinic California,
the Country pieced out on the pills,
bottle lend to the case of the watered down on the Version to be tame,
silently the Physicians and the Media drained,
like Morgues with A live at the Corpse of the strain of Brains at chest,
now the clock is the Over loaded to Stip. to the Prescript on the scribble Scribed.
Hole E! shipped to go that sign so famously Signed,
rinse the waist with the fiber and green on the Toll,
priced to that lawn on the dance and the language by came,
shortened on the laughter with anger redressed!!
For that is the dip on the long term of KISS on a port,
watch that quit turned to Hate on the wealth,
make upper to that stagger of spilled,
sky lights with the chase but the drop is of the Pharmaceuticals by came.
On At long And finally lapsed sting breadth the country is sink in the bled vain as the soap and nail,
that coffin is breached by the shelves that have take to library for the filing land,
as in each ankle the should Mind to think is the Thought of tree Suns ray,
as the berth record on Harbor piers to pile lawns Is the groove of personal 'ven' debt duh or Ven gents??
Ate Menu is Chaucer to the Treaty of Vacant see as the Arbor is slaughtering the Torque by wrench,
screws Bolts arson have toggles on the brains System to a chore It taste the rots,
bodies on the planks to the ditches of the grown by balm.
Made by test Ding goes the shape,
fog on sheds which the Medal is shine,
speak And via will Comet the hull to a Scrub.
Washing tons Event status Sharpens the Pt. Tooth as the grip on a vats Beast,
deep in lines for the Anchor on paid Media hath received while counting the fleece,
wool to the sweat turned drips,
paints that have canned the lid from the Cent to the spend on the hand.
Computation to the chained letter elect shins take pass backwards to certificate on the long shore man,
does the address of clove to spice regard the Nation as the meelworms fed tick,
a pulse to grind the fluff at stand as the Feather gruff to pleasant the plump??
The National Media Broadcasting Cooperation to Not enter View as not Plausible rather dollar,
the drive to Rose Gardens price is the burial of register to the Cost of the News on received,
the Tab let talks to sigh Co. tropics As the scene is Vast lust to Sell secular Soles a footstepped Print.
For criticism has Circle a square to Round the weight as the label runs the rinse in lets go,
hurried to the commercial of seat at/on the White Horse ride as the Rein bow buck Coals the shoe,
boots on the length should have All Raised the IM 'D' IM Eh as the parade drug to the long Listers on scooters,
for the sample of list to the Unrecovered is Titled to strongs.
Strangely the can A bus at the frozen coca-cola with that hare Owe in's barrier boomed,
yet the list goes On and once upon the Story does the Physicians bank the Shallow dried??,
graped on the Vine is this been of the grave,
import to the Pills and the bottle Message fade.
Bummer the whisper is Whistle to the truth,
for these Swamps of stucks don't ever decade advance as in the 1960's the difficult Difference,
tattle that Word to snap a rib the Rift will spin that groove to recording live on the Tile,
tattle that Word to snap a rib the Rift will spin that groove to recording live on the Tile,
the lever to the keen on the level to the dawn,
burn bare Oles dancing under Moon and dancing See Men.
List of psychotropic medications
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of medications which are used to treat psychiatric conditions that are on the market in the United States.
- Abilify - antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and agitation
- Adderall - stimulant used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
- Ambien - used as a sleep aid, cause drowsiness
- Antabuse - used to treat alcohol addiction
- Aricept - used to slow the progression of dementia
- Anafranil - tricyclic antidepressant; mostly used for OCD
- Ativan - benzodiazepine, used to relieve anxiety
- Brintellix - Antidepressant, class other
- BuSpar - an anti -anxiety medication
- Benzodiazepines - a class of sedatives
- Celexa - an antidepressant of the SSRI class (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
- Clozaril - an atypical antipsychotic (Clozapine)
- Concerta - an extended release form of methylphenidate(NDRI used to treat ADD/ADHD)
- Cymbalta - an antidepressant of the SSNRI (Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor) class, similar to Effexor (venlafaxine)
- Depakote - an antiepileptic and mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder, neuropathic pain and others. Sometimes called an antimanic medication
- Doxepin - brand name Sinequan, a tricyclic antidepressant,also used to treat nerve pain, insomnia a.similar to imipramine.
- Dexedrine - dextroamphetamine sulfate, used to treat severe ADHD and Narcolepsy.
- Desoxyn methamphetamine hydrochloride, used to treat severe ADHD and severe exogenous obesity. Rarely used.
- Effexor - an antidepressant of the SSNRI (or SNRI) class
- Elavil - a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), less commonly used these days as an antidepressant or to treat psychiatric conditions (considered a first line treatment option forneuropathic pain)
- Eskalith - a salt of Lithium, which is a mood stabilizer used to prevent bipolar disorder.
- Fluoxetine - (Prozac) is an SSRI drug used to treat major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa (an eating disorder) obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
- Fluvoxamine - (Luvox) is the first SSRI drug. It is indicated to treat obsessive compulsive disorder (US) and both OCD and depression elsewhere in the world.
- Haldol - a "typical" antipsychotic, one of the oldest, usually given in conjunction with "cogentin", an antiparkinsonic. This is due to the high occurrence of tardive dyskinesia on patients with prolonged Haldol use.
- Imipramine - a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is sometimes used to treat bulimia, panic disorder, or related disorders
- Inderal - a beta blocker known as propranolol. It is used for acute anxiety, panic attacks, hypertension.
- Invega Sustenna- an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, delusions, and aggression.
- Keppra - an anticonvulsant drug which is sometimes used as a mood stabilizer
- Klonopin - anti-anxiety and anti-epileptic medication of the benzodiazepine class
- Lamictal - a mood stabilizer of the anticonvulsant class
- Latuda - an atypical anti-psychotic
- Lexapro - an antidepressant of the SSRI class
- Librium - the first approved medication of the benzodiazepine class. Mostly used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal.
- Lithium (generic name) - Known more commonly by its generic name, a mood stabilizer used in treating bipolar disorder
- Lithobid (Lithium) - A trade drug of the antipsychotic drug lithium, which is a mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder
- Lunesta - a sleep aid
- Luvox - an antidepressant of the SSRI class, often used to treat Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- Mellaril - an antipsychotic, today rarely used
- Namenda - used to slow the progression of Alzheimer's Dementia
- Navane - an antipsychotic, today rarely used
- Neurontin - an anticonvulsant (anti -seizure medication) which is sometimes used as a mood stabilizer or to treat chronic pain, particularly diabetic neuropathy
- Olanzapine - an second generation antipsychotic
- Paxil - an SSRI antidepressant, used frequently to treat depression and anxiety disorders
- Phenelzine - (Nardil)-MAOIs for depression
- Pristiq - an SNRI antidepressant
- Prolixin - an antipsychotic
- Prozac - an SSRI antidepressant
- Phenobarbital- a barbiturate, sedative and hypnotic properties
- Quetiapine an antipsychotic drug mainly used to treat schizophrenia
- Remeron - an antidepressant which is often used as a sleep aid
- Restoril - a sleep aid of the benzodiazepine class
- Risperdal - an "atypical" antipsychotic
- Ritalin - a stimulant used to treat ADHD/ADD
- Saphris - an atypical antipsychotic
- Serax - anti -anxiety medication of the benzodiazepine class, often used to help during detoxification from alcohol or other drugs of abuse
- Sertraline HCl an SSRI class anti-depressant (brand name Zoloft)
- Seroquel - an "atypical" antipsychotic, sometimes is used as a sleep aid when given in low doses
- Serzone- an "atypical" antidepressant
- Stelazine - an older antipsychotic, today rarely used
- Strattera - a non-stimulant medication used to treat ADD/ADHD
- Sycrest - an atypical antipsychotic
- Thorazine - an older antipsychotic, although highly effective it is rarely used today because of the high occurrence of serious side effects
- Topamax - a mood stabilizer, also used for migraine headaches
- Trazodone - atypical antidepressant, most typically used now as a sleep aid
- Trileptal - a mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder
tegretol- antiseizure that can also be used for mood disorder
- Valium - anti-anxiety medication of the benzodiazepine class
- Vistaril - an antihistamine for the treatment of itches and irritations, an antiemetic, as a weak analgesic, an opioid potentiator, and as an anxiolytic.
- Vyvanse - a stimulant used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
- Wellbutrin - an antidepressant of the norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) class, structurally identical to Zyban, a smoking cessation aid
- Xanax - an antianxiety medication of the benzodiazepine class
- Zoloft - an antidepressant of the SSRI class Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
- Zyprexa - an "atypical" antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and various types of dementia and /sometimes OCD(obsessive compulsive disorder.
- Zaleplon - a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic
- Zolpidem - a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic
- Zopiclone - a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness. These substances may be used recreationally, to purposefully alter one's consciousness, or as entheogens, for ritual, spiritual, or shamanic purposes, as a tool for studying or augmenting the mind. Some categories of psychoactive drugs, which are prescription medicines, have medical therapeutic utility, such asanesthetics, analgesics, hormonal preparations, anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian drugs or for the treatment of neuro-psychiatric disorders, as hypnotic drugs, anxiolytic and some stimulant medications used in ADHD and some sleep disorders. There are also some psychoactive substances used in the detoxification and rehabilitation programs for psychoactive drug users.
Psychoactive substances often bring about subjective (although these may be objectively observed) changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant (e.g. euphoria) or advantageous (e.g. increased alertness) and are thus reinforcing. Substances which are both rewarding and positively reinforcing have the potential to induce a state of addiction – compulsive drug use despite negative consequences – when used consistently in excess. In addition, sustained use of some substances may produce a physical dependence or psychological dependence syndrome associated with somatic or psychological-emotional withdrawal states respectively. Drug rehabilitation aims to break this cycle of dependency, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, maintenance and even other psychoactive substances. However, the reverse is also true in some cases, that certain experiences on drugs may be so unfriendly and uncomforting that the user may never want to try the substance again. This is especially true of the deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed) and powerful dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum). "Psychedelic amphetamines" or empathogen-entactogens (such as MDA and MDMA) may produce an additional stimulant or euphoriant effect, and thus have an addiction potential.
In part because of this potential for substance misuse, addiction, or dependence, the ethics of drug use is debated. Restrictions on drug production and sales in an attempt to decrease drug abuse is very common among national and sub-national governments worldwide. Ethical concerns have also been raised about over-use of these drugs clinically, and about their marketing by manufacturers.
Psychoactive drug use can be traced to prehistory. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substances (mostly plants) dating back at least 10,000 years, and historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5,000 years. The chewing of coca leaves, for example, dates back over 8000 years ago in Peruvian society.
Medicinal use is one important facet of psychoactive drug usage. However, some have postulated that the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire. Supporters of this belief contend that the history of drug use and even children's desire for spinning, swinging, or sliding indicate that the drive to alter one's state of mind is universal.
One of the first people to articulate this point of view, set aside from a medicinal context, was American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow (1836–1870) in his book The Hasheesh Eater (1857):
[D]rugs are able to bring humans into the neighborhood of divine experience and can thus carry us up from our personal fate and the everyday circumstances of our life into a higher form of reality. It is, however, necessary to understand precisely what is meant by the use of drugs. We do not mean the purely physical craving...That of which we speak is something much higher, namely the knowledge of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, and to catch a glimpse of deeper insights and more magnificent visions of the beauty, truth, and the divine than we are normally able to spy through the cracks in our prison cell. But there are not many drugs which have the power of stilling such craving. The entire catalog, at least to the extent that research has thus far written it, may include only opium, hashish, and in rarer cases alcohol, which has enlightening effects only upon very particular characters.
This relationship is not limited to humans. A number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals, berries and even fermented fruit, becoming intoxicated, such as cats after consuming catnip. Traditional legends of sacred plants often contain references to animals that introduced humankind to their use. Animals and psychoactive plants appear to have co-evolved, possibly explaining why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system.
During the 20th century, many governments across the world initially responded to the use of recreational drugs by banning them and making their use, supply, or trade a criminal offense. A notable example of this was Prohibition in the United States, where alcohol was made illegal for 13 years. However, many governments, government officials and persons in law enforcement have concluded that illicit drug use cannot be sufficiently stopped through criminalization. Organizations such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition (LEAP) have come to such a conclusion, believing:
[T]he existing drug policies have failed in their intended goals of addressing the problems of crime, drug abuse, addiction, juvenile drug use, stopping the flow of illegal drugs into this country and the internal sale and use of illegal drugs. By fighting a war on drugs the government has increased the problems of society and made them far worse. A system of regulation rather than prohibition is a less harmful, more ethical and a more effective public policy.[not in citation given]
In some countries, there has been a move toward harm reduction by health services, where the use of illicit drugs is neither condoned nor promoted, but services and support are provided to ensure users have adequate factual information readily available, and that the negative effects of their use be minimized. Such is the case of Portuguese drug policy of decriminalization, which achieved its primary goal of reducing the adverse health effects of drug abuse.
Psychoactive substances are used by humans for a number of different purposes to achieve a specific end. These uses vary widely between cultures. Some substances may have controlled or illegal uses while others may have shamanic purposes, and still others are used medicinally. Other examples would be social drinking, nootropic, or sleep aids.Caffeine is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive substance, but unlike many others, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all jurisdictions. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.
Psychoactive drugs are divided into different groups according to their pharmacological effects. Commonly used psychoactive drugs and groups:
- Example: Benzodiazepine
- Stimulants ("uppers"). This category comprises substances that wake one up, stimulate the mind, and may even cause euphoria, but do not affect perception.
- Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics. This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria.
- Hallucinogens, including psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants. This category encompasses all those substances that produce distinct alterations in perception, sensation of space and time, and emotional states 
Main article: Anesthesia
General anesthetics are a class of psychoactive drug used on people to block physical pain and other sensations. Most anesthetics induce unconsciousness, allowing the person to undergo medical procedures like surgery without the feelings of physical pain or emotional trauma. To induce unconsciousness, anesthetics affect the GABA and NMDAsystems. For example, halothane is a GABA agonist, and ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Main article: Analgesics
Psychoactive drugs are often prescribed to manage pain. The subjective experience of pain is primarily regulated by endogenous opioid peptides. Thus, pain can often be managed using psychoactives that operate on this neurotransmitter system, also known as opioid receptor agonists. This class of drugs can be highly addictive, and includesopiate narcotics, like morphine and codeine. NSAIDs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are also analgesics. These agents also reduce eicosanoid-mediated inflammation by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Main article: Psychiatric medications
Psychiatric medications are psychoactive drugs prescribed for the management of mental and emotional disorders, or to aid in overcoming challenging behavior. There are six major classes of psychiatric medications:
- Antidepressants treat disparate disorders such as clinical depression, dysthymia, anxiety, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.
- Stimulants, which are used to treat disorders such as attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy and to suppress the appetite.
- Antipsychotics, which are used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as those associated with schizophrenia or severe mania.
- Mood stabilizers, which are used to treat bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder.
- Anxiolytics, which are used to treat anxiety disorders.
- Depressants, which are used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics, depending upon dosage.
In addition, several psychoactive substances are currently employed to treat various addictions. These include acamprosate ornaltrexone in the treatment of alcoholism, or methadone or buprenorphine maintenance therapy in the case of opioid addiction.
Exposure to psychoactive drugs can cause changes to the brain that counteract or augment some of their effects; these changes may be beneficial or harmful. However, there is a significant amount of evidence that relapse rate of mental disorders negatively corresponds with length of properly followed treatment regimens (that is, relapse rate substantially declines over time), and to a much greater degree than placebo.
Main article: Recreational drug use
Many psychoactive substances are used for their mood and perception altering effects, including those with accepted uses in medicine and psychiatry. Examples of psychoactive substances include caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, LSD, and cannabis. Classes of drugs frequently used recreationally include:
- Stimulants, which activate the central nervous system. These are used recreationally for their euphoric effects.
- Hallucinogens (psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants), which induce perceptual and cognitive alterations.
- Hypnotics, which depress the central nervous system.
- Opioid analgesics, which also depress the central nervous system. These are used recreationally because of their euphoric effects.
- Inhalants, in the forms of gas aerosols, or solvents, which are inhaled as a vapor because of their stupefying effects. Many inhalants also fall into the above categories (such as nitrous oxide which is also an analgesic).
In some modern and ancient cultures, drug usage is seen as a status symbol. Recreational drugs are seen as status symbols in settings such as at nightclubs and parties. For example, in ancient Egypt, gods were commonly pictured holding hallucinogenic plants.
Because there is controversy about regulation of recreational drugs, there is an ongoing debate about drug prohibition. Critics of prohibition believe that regulation of recreational drug use is a violation of personal autonomy and freedom. In the United States, critics have noted that prohibition or regulation of recreational and spiritual drug use might beunconstitutional, and causing more harm than is prevented.
Ritual and spiritual
Main article: Entheogens
Certain psychoactives, particularly hallucinogens, have been used for religious purposes since prehistoric times. Native Americans have usedpeyote cacti containing mescaline for religious ceremonies for as long as 5700 years. The muscimol-containing Amanita muscaria mushroom was used for ritual purposes throughout prehistoric Europe. Various other hallucinogens, including jimsonweed, psilocybin mushrooms, andcannabis, have been used in religious ceremonies for millennia.
The use of entheogens for religious purposes resurfaced in the West during the counterculture movements of the 1960s and 70s. Under the leadership of Timothy Leary, new spiritual and intention-based movements began to use LSD and other hallucinogens as tools to access deeper inner exploration. In the United States, the use of peyote for ritual purposes is protected only for members of the Native American Church, which is allowed to cultivate and distribute peyote. However, the genuine religious use of peyote, regardless of one's personal ancestry, is protected in Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Oregon.
Main article: Psychochemical weapons
Psychoactive drugs have been used in military applications as non-lethal weapons. In World War II, between 1939 and 1945, 60 millionamphetamine pills were made for use by soldiers. Brown-brown, a form of cocaine adulterated with gunpowder, has been used in the Sierra Leone Civil War by child soldiers.
Both military and civilian American intelligence officials are known to have used psychoactive drugs while interrogating captives apprehended in its War on Terror. In July 2012,Jason Leopold and Jeffrey Kaye, psychologists and human rights workers, had a Freedom of Information Act request fulfilled that confirmed that the use of psychoactive drugs during interrogation was a long-standing practice. Captives and former captives had been reporting medical staff collaborating with interrogators to drug captives with powerful psychoactive drugs prior to interrogation since the very first captives' release. In May 2003, recently released Pakistani captive Sha Mohammed Alikhel described the routine use of psychoactive drugs. He said that Jihan Wali, a captive kept in a nearby cell, was rendered catatonic through the use of these drugs.
Route of administration
Psychoactive drugs are administered via oral ingestion as a tablet, capsule, powder, liquid, and beverage; via inhalation; via injection by subcutaneous, intramuscular, andintravenous route; via rectum by suppository and enema; and via inhalation by smoking, vaporization and insufflation ("snorting"). The efficiency of each method of administration varies from drug to drug.
The psychiatric drugs fluoxetine, quetiapine, and lorazepam are ingested orally in tablet or capsule form. Alcohol and caffeine are ingested in beverage form; nicotine andcannabis are smoked or vaped; peyote and psilocybin mushrooms are ingested in botanical form or dried; and crystalline drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamines are usually insufflated (inhaled or "snorted").
Determinants of effects
The theory of dosage, set, and setting is a useful model in dealing with the effects of psychoactive substances, especially in a controlled therapeutic setting as well as in recreational use. Dr. Timothy Leary, based on his own experiences and systematic observations on psychedelics, developed this theory along with his colleagues Ralph Metzner, and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) in the 1960s.
The first factor, dosage, has been a truism since ancient times, or at least since Paracelsus who said, "Dose makes the poison." Some compounds are beneficial or pleasurable when consumed in small amounts, but harmful, deadly, or evoke discomfort in higher doses.
The set is the internal attitudes and constitution of the person, including their expectations, wishes, and fears. This factor is especially important for the hallucinogens, which have the ability to make conscious experiences out of the unconscious. In traditional cultures, set is shaped primarily by the worldview that all the members of the culture share.
The third aspect is setting, which pertains to the surroundings, the place, and the time in which the experiences transpire.
This theory clearly states that the effects are equally the result of chemical, pharmacological, psychological, and physical influences. The model that Timothy Leary proposed applied to the psychedelics, although it also applies to other psychoactives.
Main article: Neuropsychopharmacology
Psychoactive drugs operate by temporarily affecting a person's neurochemistry, which in turn causes changes in a person's mood, cognition, perception and behavior. There are many ways in which psychoactive drugs can affect the brain. Each drug has a specific action on one or more neurotransmitter or neuroreceptor in the brain.
Drugs that increase activity in particular neurotransmitter systems are called agonists. They act by increasing the synthesis of one or more neurotransmitters, by reducing its reuptake from the synapses, or by mimicking the action by binding directly to the postsynaptic receptor. Drugs that reduce neurotransmitter activity are called antagonists, and operate by interfering with synthesis or blocking postsynaptic receptors so that neurotransmitters cannot bind to them.
Exposure to a psychoactive substance can cause changes in the structure and functioning of neurons, as the nervous system tries to re-establish the homeostasis disrupted by the presence of the drug (see also, Neuroplasticity). Exposure to antagonists for a particular neurotransmitter can increase the number of receptors for that neurotransmitter or the receptors themselves may become more responsive to neurotransmitters; this is called sensitization. Conversely, overstimulation of receptors for a particular neurotransmitter may cause a decrease in both number and sensitivity of these receptors, a process called desensitization or tolerance. Sensitization and desensitization are more likely to occur with long-term exposure, although they may occur after only a single exposure. These processes are thought to play a role in drug dependence and addiction. Physical dependence on antidepressants or anxiolytics may result in worse depression or anxiety, respectively, as withdrawal symptoms. Unfortunately, because clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder) is often referred to simply asdepression, antidepressants are often requested by and prescribed for patients who are depressed, but not clinically depressed.
Affected neurotransmitter systems
The following is a brief table of notable drugs and their primary neurotransmitter, receptor or method of action. It should be noted that many drugs act on more than one transmitter or receptor in the brain.
Addiction and dependence
|Addiction and dependence glossary|
|• addiction – a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences|
|• addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing|
|• addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing|
|• dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake)|
|• drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose|
|• physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens)|
|• psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)|
|• reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them|
|• rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive or as something to be approached|
|• sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it|
|• tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose|
|• withdrawal – symptoms that occur after chronic use of a drug is reduced abruptly or stopped|
|(edit | history)|
Psychoactive drugs are often associated with addiction or drug dependence. Dependence can be divided into two types:psychological dependence, by which a user experiences negative psychological or emotional withdrawal symptoms (e.g., depression) and physical dependence, by which a user must use a drug to avoid physically uncomfortable or even medically harmful physical withdrawal symptoms. Drugs that are both rewarding and reinforcing are addictive; these properties of a drug are mediated through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, particularly the nucleus accumbens. Not all addictive drugs are associated with physical dependence, e.g., amphetamine, and not all drugs that produce physical dependence are addictive drugs, e.g., caffeine.
Many professionals, self-help groups, and businesses specialize in drug rehabilitation, with varying degrees of success, and many parents attempt to influence the actions and choices of their children regarding psychoactives.
Common forms of rehabilitation include psychotherapy, support groups and pharmacotherapy, which uses psychoactive substances to reduce cravings and physiological withdrawal symptoms while a user is going through detox. Methadone, itself an opioid and a psychoactive substance, is a common treatment for heroin addiction, as is another opioid,buprenorphine. Recent research on addiction has shown some promise in using psychedelics such as ibogaine to treat and even cure drug addictions, although this has yet to become a widely accepted practice.
Main article: Prohibition of drugs
The legality of psychoactive drugs has been controversial through most of recent history; the Second Opium War andProhibition are two historical examples of legal controversy surrounding psychoactive drugs. However, in recent years, the most influential document regarding the legality of psychoactive drugs is the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an international treaty signed in 1961 as an Act of the United Nations. Signed by 73 nations including the United States, theUSSR, India, and the United Kingdom, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs established Schedules for the legality of each drug and laid out an international agreement to fight addiction to recreational drugs by combatting the sale, trafficking, and use of scheduled drugs. All countries that signed the treaty passed laws to implement these rules within their borders. However, some countries that signed the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, such as theNetherlands, are more lenient with their enforcement of these laws.
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The FDA regulates which psychoactive drugs are over the counter and which are only available with a prescription.However, certain psychoactive drugs, like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs listed in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs are subject to criminal laws. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 regulates the recreational drugs outlined in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.Alcohol is regulated by state governments, but the federal National Minimum Drinking Age Actpenalizes states for not following a national drinking age. Tobacco is also regulated by all fifty state governments. Most people accept such restrictions and prohibitions of certain drugs, especially the "hard" drugs, which are illegal in most countries.
In the medical context, psychoactive drugs as a treatment for illness is widespread and generally accepted. Little controversy exists concerning over the counter psychoactive medications inantiemetics and antitussives. Psychoactive drugs are commonly prescribed to patients with psychiatric disorders. However, certain critics believe that certain prescription psychoactives, such as antidepressants and stimulants, are overprescribed and threaten patients' judgement and autonomy.