A modern Lipizzan
|Distinguishing features||Compact, muscular, generally associated with the Spanish Riding School|
|Alternative names||Lipizzaner, Karster|
|Country of origin||Developed by the House of Habsburg from Arab,Barb, Spanish and Neapolitan stock. Today associated with nations of Austria, Croatia, Hungary, and Slovenia.|
|Verband der Lipizzanerzüchter in Österreich||Breed standards|
|Lipica Stud, Slovenia||Breed standards|
|Ministero delle Politiche Agricole e Forestali, Italy||Breed standards|
|Lipizzaner Society of Great Britain||Breed standards|
|Lipizzan International Federation||Breed standards|
|Lipizzan Association of North America||Breed standards|
|Equus ferus caballus|
- Pluto: a gray Spanish stallion from the Royal Danish Stud, foaled in 1765
- Conversano: a black Neapolitan stallion, foaled in 1767
- Maestoso: a gray stallion from the Kladrub stud with a Spanish dam, foaled 1773, descendants today all trace via Maestoso X, foaled in Hungary in 1819.
- Favory: a dun stallion from the Kladrub stud, foaled in 1779
- Neapolitano: a bay Neapolitan stallion from the Polesine, foaled in 1790
- Siglavy: a gray Arabian stallion, originally from Syria, foaled in 1810
- Tulipan: A black stallion of Baroque type and Spanish pedigree foaled about 1800 from the Croatian stud farm of Terezovac, owned by Count Janković-Bésán.
- Incitato: A stallion of Spanish lines foaled 1802, bred in Transylvania by Count Bethlen, and sold to the Hungarian stud farm Mezőhegyes.
Spanish Riding School
Training and uses
- Forward riding, also called Straight riding or the Remontenschule - This is the name given to the skills taught in the first year of training, where a young horse learns to besaddled and bridled, learns basic commands on a longe line, and then is taught to be ridden, mostly in an arena in simple straight lines and turns, to teach correct responses to the rider's legs and hands while mounted. The main goal during this time is to develop free forward movement in as natural a position as possible.
- Campaign school, Campagneschule or Campagne, where the horse learns collection and balance through all gaits, turns and maneuvers. The horse learns to shorten and lengthen his stride, perform lateral movements to the side, and is introduced to the more complex double bridle. This is the longest training phase and may take several years.
- High-school dressage, the Haute école or Hohe Schule, which includes riding the horse with greater collection with increased use of the hindquarters, developing increased regularity, skill and finesse in all natural gaits. In this period, the horse learns the most advanced movements such as the half-pass, counter-canter, flying change, pirouette,passage, and piaffe. This is also when the horse may be taught the "Airs above the ground." This level emphasizes performance with a high degree of perfection.
"Airs above the ground"
- The levade: a position wherein the horse raises up both front legs, standing at a 30-degree angle entirely on its hind legs in a controlled form that requires a great deal of hindquarter strength. A less difficult but related movement is the pesade, where the horse rises up to a 45-degree angle.
- The courbette: a movement where the horse balances on its hind legs and then essentially "hops," jumping with the forelegs off the ground and hind legs together.
- The capriole: a jump in place where the stallion leaps into the air, tucking his forelegs under himself, and kicks out with his hind legs at the top of the jump.
- The croupade and ballotade are predecessors to the capriole. In the croupade, the horse jumps with both fore and hind legs remaining tucked under the body and he does not kick out. In the ballotade, the horse jumps and untucks his hind legs slightly, he does not kick out, but the soles of the hind feet are visible if viewed from the rear.
- The mezair: A series of successive levades in which the horse lowers its forefeet to the ground before rising again on hindquarters, achieving forward motion. This movement is no longer used at the Spanish Riding School.