Saturday, December 26, 2015
Preventing and Treating Proud Flesh in Horses
By Kentucky Equine Research Staff · January 8, 2013
Your gelding comes in with a cut on his pastern. It doesn’t look too bad, so you clean it and put some antibiotic cream on it. You decide not to call the veterinarian because the cut has stopped bleeding and isn’t very deep. Two weeks later, the cut is no longer open, but it hasn’t exactly healed, either. Instead, there’s a layer of reddish, lumpy tissue covering the wound. You call the veterinarian, who informs you that what you’re seeing is proud flesh, or an overgrowth of granulation tissue.
To give leg wounds the best chance of healing, a veterinarian may use bandaging or a cast to limit motion as much as possible. Proud flesh is most often seen as the result of an injury of the horse’s lower leg. Below the horse’s knees and hocks, there is little soft tissue and the skin is pulled tight over the bones and tendons. Near joints such as the pastern, the skin moves every time the horse takes a step, so healing is slowed because the cut is constantly pulled open.
Injuries in other areas of the horse’s body develop proud flesh less often because the skin covering the muscles is not under as much tension and the horse’s movements do not pull as hard on the edges of a wound. Cuts in these areas can usually be sutured, which almost always prevents the growth of proud flesh. Suturing should be done as soon as possible after the wound occurs in order to allow faster healing with minimal scarring. It is much more difficult to suture wounds on the lower legs because the skin is wrapped so tightly.
Wounds normally heal by the formation of granulation tissue first, after which skin grows over this layer, beginning at the edges of the wound and growing toward the center. When an injury is in an area where suturing isn’t possible, excessive growth of granulation tissue can develop where skin formation is disrupted by tension or frequent movement.
To give leg wounds the best chance of healing, a veterinarian may use bandaging or a cast to limit motion as much as possible. This gives the skin a better chance to grow over the normal granulation tissue, preventing or reducing the amount of proud flesh. If it does occur on a wound, proud flesh should be cut back until the wound surface is level with the skin surface. In cases where the proud flesh has been allowed to become massive, this may have to be done in several smaller stages, so proud flesh should be treated fairly early in the course of its development. Trimming usually causes a lot of bleeding but may not be terribly painful to the horse because granulation tissue doesn’t have nerves. Healthy tissue around and under the proud flesh does have nerves, however, so the horse may need to be sedated for this surgery.
After the excessive granulation tissue is removed, the area is bandaged to control bleeding and the wound, now trimmed down to healthy tissue, is allowed to heal. The veterinarian may prescribe a steroid ointment to inhibit the regrowth of proud flesh while not impacting the formation of new skin that eventually grows in to cover the wound. If the wound is very large, the veterinarian may suggest performing a skin graft to reduce healing time and produce a better result. Natural healing can leave a scarred surface that is subject to cracking and bleeding, potentially producing a new wound that is slow to heal and at risk for infection. A skin graft reduces the area of scar tissue with a surface that looks better and is less subject to cracking.
After proud flesh has been removed, several weeks or months may be required to allow the wound to heal completely. Smaller wounds will achieve a skin covering before big ones will, underlining the importance of dealing with proud flesh before it develops into a large mass.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
PEST analysis ("Political, Economic, Social and Technological") describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in theenvironmental scanning component of strategic management. It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market research, and gives an overview of the different macro-environmental factors that the company has to take into consideration. It is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations.
The growing importance of environmental or ecological factors in the first decade of the 21st century have given rise to green business and encouraged widespread use of an updated version of the PEST framework. STEER analysis systematically considers Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors.
Other variants of the mnemonic include "Legal" to make SLEPT; inserting Environmental factors expands it to PESTEL or PESTLE, which is popular in the United Kingdom; or, inserting "Intercultural" factors expanded SLEPT to SPELIT, which has been popular in the United States since the mid-2000s. The model has recently[when?] been further extended to STEEPLE and STEEPLED, adding "Ethics" and "Demographic" factors.
The basic PEST analysis includes four factors:
Expanding the analysis to PESTLE or PESTEL adds:
Other factors for the various offshoots include:
More factors discussed in the SPELIT Power Matrix include:
Applicability of the factors
The model's factors will vary in importance to a given company based on its industry and the goods it produces. For example, consumer and B2B companies tend to be more affected by the social factors, while a global defense contractor would tend to be more affected by political factors. Additionally, factors that are more likely to change in the future or more relevant to a given company will carry greater importance. For example, a company which has borrowed heavily will need to focus more on the economic factors (especially interest rates).
Furthermore, conglomerate companies who produce a wide range of products (such as Sony, Disney, or BP) may find it more useful to analyze one department of its company at a time with the PESTEL model, thus focusing on the specific factors relevant to that one department. A company may also wish to divide factors into geographical relevance, such as local, national, and global.
Use of PEST analysis with other models
The PEST factors, combined with external micro-environmental factors and internal drivers, can be classified as opportunities and threats in a SWOT analysis. A graphical method for PEST analysis called 'PESTLEWeb' has been developed at Henley Business School in the UK. Research has shown that PESTLEWeb diagrams are considered by users to be more logical, rationale and convincing than traditional PEST analysis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place, industry or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. Some authors credit SWOT to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500companies. However, Humphrey himself does not claim the creation of SWOT, and the origins remain obscure. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit.
Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective.
First, the decision makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable a different objective must be selected and the process repeated.
Users of SWOT analysis need to ask and answer questions that generate meaningful information for each category (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to make the analysis useful and find their competitive advantage.
Internal and external factors
SWOT analysis aims to identify the key internal and external factors seen as important to achieving an objective. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:
Analysis may view the internal factors as strengths or as weaknesses depending upon their effect on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses (distractions, competition) for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4Ps; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on.
The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and sociocultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or in competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix.
SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade its users to compile lists rather than to think about actual important factors in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats.
It is prudent not to eliminate any candidate SWOT entry too quickly. The importance of individual SWOTs will be revealed by the value of the strategies they generate. A SWOT item that produces valuable strategies is important. A SWOT item that generates no strategies is not important.
The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined. Examples include: non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.
SWOT analysis can be used effectively to build organization or personal strategy. Steps necessary to execute strategy-oriented analysis involve: identification of internal and external factors (using popular 2x2 matrix), selection and evaluation of the most important factors and identification of relations existing between internal and external features.
For instance: strong relations between strengths and opportunities can suggest good condition of the company and allow using aggressive strategy. On the other hand, strong interaction between weaknesses and threats could be analyzed as potential warning and advise for using defensive strategy.
Matching and converting
One way of utilizing SWOT is matching and converting. Matching is used to find competitive advantage by matching the strengths to opportunities. Converting is to apply conversion strategies to convert weaknesses or threats into strengths or opportunities. An example of conversion strategy is to find new markets. If the threats or weaknesses cannot be converted, a company should try to minimize or avoid them.
SWOT landscape analysis
The SWOT-landscape grabs different managerial situations by visualizing and foreseeing the dynamic performance of comparable objects according to findings by Brendan Kitts, Leif Edvinsson and Tord Beding (2000).
Changes in relative performance are continually identified. Projects (or other units of measurements) that could be potential risk or opportunity objects are highlighted.
SWOT-landscape also indicates which underlying strength/weakness factors that have had or likely will have highest influence in the context of value in use (for ex. capital value fluctuations).
As part of the development of strategies and plans to enable the organization to achieve its objectives, that organization will use a systematic/rigorous process known as corporate planning. SWOT alongside PEST/PESTLE can be used as a basis for the analysis of business and environmental factors.
Main article: Marketing management
In many competitor analyses, marketers build detailed profiles of each competitor in the market, focusing especially on their relative competitive strengths and weaknesses using SWOT analysis. Marketing managers will examine each competitor's cost structure, sources of profits, resources and competencies, competitive positioning and product differentiation, degree of vertical integration, historical responses to industry developments, and other factors.
Marketing management often finds it necessary to invest in research to collect the data required to perform accurate marketing analysis. Accordingly, management often conducts market research (alternately marketing research) to obtain this information. Marketers employ a variety of techniques to conduct market research, but some of the more common include:
Below is an example SWOT analysis of a market position of a small management consultancy with specialism in HRM.
SWOT Analysis in community organization
The SWOT analysis has been utilized in community work as a tool to identify positive and negative factors within organizations, communities, and the broader society that promote or inhibit successful implementation of social services and social change efforts. It is used as a preliminary resource, assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a community served by a nonprofit or community organization. This organizing tool is best used in collaboration with community workers and/or community members before developing goals and objectives for a program design or implementing an organizing strategy.The SWOT analysis is a part of the planning for social change process and will not provide a strategic plan if used by itself. After a SWOT analysis is completed a social change organization can turn the SWOT list into a series of recommendations to consider before developing a strategic plan.
Strengths and Weaknesses: These are the internal factors within an organization.
Opportunities and Threats: These are external factors stemming from community or societal forces.
Although the SWOT analysis was originally designed as an organizational method for business and industries, it has been replicated in various community work as a tool for identifying external and internal support to combat internal and external opposition. The SWOT analysis is necessary to provide direction to the next stages of the change process. It has been utilized by community organizers and community members to further social justice in the context of Social Work practice.
Application in community organization
Elements to consider
Elements to consider in a SWOT analysis include understanding the community that a particular organization is working with. This can be done via public forums, listening campaigns, and informational interviews. Data collection will help inform the community members and workers when developing the SWOT analysis. A needs and assets assessment are tooling that can be used in order to identify the needs and existing resources of the community. When these assessments are done and data has been collected, an analysis of the community can be made which will inform the SWOT analysis.
Steps for implementation
A SWOT analysis is best developed in a group setting such as a work or community meeting. A facilitator can conduct the meeting by first explaining what a SWOT analysis is as well as identifying the meaning of each term.
One way of facilitating the development of a SWOT analysis includes developing an example SWOT with the larger group then separating each group into smaller teams to present to the larger group after set amount of time. This allows for individuals, who may be silenced in a larger group setting, to contribute. Once the allotted time is up, the facilitator may record all the factors of each group onto a large document such as a poster board and then the large group, as a collective, can go work through each threat and weaknesses to explore options that may be used to combat negative forces with the strengths and opportunities present within the organization and community. A SWOT meeting allows participants to creatively brainstorm, identify obstacles and strategize possibly solutions to these limitations.
When to use SWOT
The use of a SWOT analysis by a community organization are as follows: to organize information, provide insight into barriers that may be present while engaging in social change processes, and identify strengths available that can be activated to counteract these barriers.
A SWOT analysis can be used to:
The SWOT analysis in Social Work practice framework is beneficial because it helps organizations decide whether or not an objective is obtainable and therefore enables organizations to set achievable goals, objectives, and steps to further the social change or community development effort. It enables organizers to take visions and produce practical and efficient outcomes in order to effect long-lasting change, and it helps organizations gather meaningful information in order to maximize their potential. Completing a SWOT analysis is a useful process regarding the consideration of key organizational priorities, such as gender and cultural diversity, and fundraising objectives.
Critiques include the misuse of the SWOT analysis as a technique that can be quickly designed without critical thought leading to a misrepresentation of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats within an organization's internal and external surroundings. Another limitation includes the development of a SWOT analysis simply to defend previously decided goals and objectives. This misuse leads to limitations on brainstorming possibilities and "real" identification of barriers. This misuse also places the organization’s interest above the well being of the community. Further, a SWOT analysis should be developed as a collaborative with a variety of contributions made by participants including community members. The design of a SWOT analysis by one or two community workers is limiting to the realities of the forces specifically external factors, and devalues the possible contributions of community members.
- Whats A Movie When Its A Real Be A Triss Prior??
- What Is Operation Prim Rose??
- When The Worry Is Over What Is The Sew^Duh??
- What Is Hot Shoeing??
- What's An All-Purpose Pad??
- Characteristics Of Or Role Language??
- What A^Leg^Grow Does Choice Tap Dance??
- Is It Standards, Poles, Jumps, Grids, Verticals, Unparrel Bars Or A Course Yet To Be Set Without The Cup Matching Fulcrum??
Posted: 26 Dec 2015 01:15 AM PST
In the stretch of the Human Condition tomorrow comes ask yesterday shore`d,
on the telephone is the ringer that I chose to pick up the rung on sweater kits,
that casual yet caustic inquiry to this theme of I am alone with company of three.
So Tick Tick goes the Pulse to the subtle Meant to paint those Canvas by Numbers state,
3:2-7 reason the treasure desk at the storm.
Sigh width the shoulder carriage as the Harness of the teak,
jasper while the wheat,
sway to this oak once the beach.
Swing breeze grace my hand to finite expression of station,
this Nation Country realms waist in lull buy a lull a bought plate.
Thus the pottery is imprinted Wrists on cell ewe Lar gel tones,
grease with The walk.
Step bye step This country Pumpkins with the dial on the Palm pay,
slick to grasp yet on the tongue languages translate stays the colds,
years on those docks,
piers and planes tock king the Prin says of pop Purr to relay the ankle toll`d,
shackles and hobbles I have watched My Mother suffer great detail in a subject self on the mail.
The Front door threshold to the Amber wishes hidden deep,
scales of Piano Sheets turning page as the body Well`d in well-Kept skull,
brushed with happens for dust is the bushel corn of Wheat.
Heavy Harps to string gut telling me of the bridge to play spake,
violin with the Orchestra and sing like the Hymn,
remind Dee in to pole the Collect shin as life is gently swinging a way.
Light littles to the greatest remember of hand holding fear,
that shaking calendar to the hair torn from the scalp on the stairs of that cent,
spackle could not mend my memory been,
for it is as raw as the day at 815 penned.
The problem of siblings ignoring the strain while enjoying the pain,
gathering on the Harvest to turmoil the ditch with water a lawn`d,
mowing with cutting dull blade to the fracture of the mind on process of blink,
I watched this history on the Eve kneeing fate.
Angora wool with Goat skinned to taunt those deep lead grins in found ding the scrub Miss shin,
My Mother held to frame with a distance,
drawing room of Elephant spoon on the lonely nest,
yet in the rather Nature kind`d the face,
smiles and a bit Tack to handle buckle my shoe on the barefoot in the Park avenue.
To thee Bare in tracers of no Capitol on the spline,
vertebrae a fragment of the shingle to the cush of a spool,
the sponges of half halt on my scatter of slat to the peppering pen,
a SIM pull know on the Movie Insurgent will Due Process this pear Raid.
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 07:13 PM PST
Now in the Riddle is the Poetry of that Park Rise to Event the Safe Tea as A course,
the standard transmission is of shifting to the automobile that else drives for the coming is automatic,
as secure from is of at lathe to bring piece on the puts it is not the whatevers that will stoke,
for I in many a evening drove as minor passenger to the Golden Gate Park for lumber,
the falling or the left timbers that the Hour Officials had trunk severed to in eventual shred,
the lesson on the teach was the clamber.
That chatter in silence of bringing rise to the warmth of a fireplace in steady on the Tune,
those character differences enveloped in some time of thought to know the ax versing the maul,
as that quest chin would narrow the tunnel it is the known of Wares to the making of shorts,
at wall to brick the formal production placed structure to cadence from To,
in just the plates of pottery shelf The Pantry made for the Phone Booth of As say.
Truth puts to The World champagne Trips to the Scene a pea,
for I am only a little being,
it is the grace of the rake drawing a satisfactory day at the barn of goods & lark!!
This Country has pictured bark while ignoring the framed,
a guild is either the gold or the know of a sound as the telephone prompts,
is the block and Cue to pool stick on the Tablet or the brain on A rack??,
does the World nigh the Instruction as this Country embraces its Tarmac??,
the Airplanes storage to the belly of freight has wondered me in this inside of the fud,
elmer with a try angle just strapping the verse with words in a fluid stream of consciousness sleeved,
so I role`d up my bother to this blog on the whittled sharp Notes to speak the muse ankle flute.
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 06:49 PM PST
The darkness of This Worlds Now on the Hour is the Clock and minus Time,
the Ages warned of the demise with blood Pouring alley streets to Red shored,
that the heads of execution would shed to the disconnect of shoulder down on the concreted fork,
as that is the done for Trump has brought past tense to the leader boards a compass of suit,
it is at the was a when Win now on the Minute its a Win when to detail his divide on a conquered country.
The short stint of His Stir has already been bellow,
the chin a route to paper Media on the a cent meant decision to chute the birth,
as that is the swamp of logger`d depth of thick rich red bleed it is the multiplication,
the billions to Trillions on that exit of the born to birth death as their entry to sport,
the games of what thought life was of choice will channel the television to Live beep Beep,
that calendar is not dependent on the Presidents Office as official to stop talk,
the conversation will bark to the Steeps as the Steam trained His Stir is in the start only for Warm-Ups are on the corked.
Each day at the medley of His Stir to this Nations National charge has in At done Carved deep Caulk kissed,
that bravado of His Stir is the Tam^boar^Ring my Older Sisters field at the Address of 815 as a Pork,
the fried Bacon is all in the stumped as the reason a tempt to ration the scale of fear crawling spines.
Heave what the arson is in the incinerator of the troublers of waddled lane,
the stage which the ewes provided gave Trump is opportone to the orange of the 'H' stile`d to grave,
the soil was the Muds in average cake scope but that bang gulled to the flight of World War II at reel,
those books of Jim Moseley and his exit took to the Bridge a decision to the Book of grown.
no the brain strides nightmares to the silent scream in each severed sleep,
awake to full childs strip,
the bare in a Worlds Skip.
Stone walls will end Up bean,
the Wish cobble Will end Up being the Snapper,
fish the People,
Poker the Crowds,
dumb deaths to grave Sit tolls as the price Fixed on His Stir off The bone`d.
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 02:47 PM PST
Today is December the 25th of Two-thousand Fifteen at exactly 2:26 PM on the clock,
this is a day that has brought enter Web to what I did not know of as active be gone,
thus the letters of posts that have shot from hand to the wrest of music at taught Sea.
The call of the Home that is in San Francisco answered in gratitude the Oregon of residence,
in that the Front Door was the the bell ringing twas Hello from To thus this conversation on silents.
My Mother is found to be of strength to the voice,
vernacular rang to structure of course,
steady on the best I have heard her in years,
lifted from troubles of trouble some Piers!!
To this simplicity the Complex is those actual Inks well,
for the Mountains of Fountain the Seltzer of tells,
in not what was part of the conversation for shell but that Leek Soup was a Cucumber Dill.
Sew as the fiber of language theme brought address to the staff,
a curious detail phoned the cellar tack,
saddle on girth the Bridle bit truth,
a Compass of North by the West of the lead.
First it came with enter the keyboard of strike up the Query,
than it gave no pandora to Bing,
that cable car verse to the sold at the lock,
leaving a Leaf to gargantuan knot.
the depth to the Blink is of Windshields cropped,
for cheeks are rosy with bubbling stock,
safe to secure with My Grandparents lot,
infamous driveway with Oak Trees speak to the Birch that just breeze.
The scent of lovely must bring such love just on spot,
the tremendous favor to that road with a knock,
to conversations that memory a file of Chess that does not fall down As the dominoes pot,
green tea Beethoven Darjeeling english Breakfast with Mozart as Bach,
for while the collection grew to well grace in the spice,
play the piano write Music to hop Scotch these are the Words that bring Discovery to be *bop!!
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 02:11 PM PST
Loving today and the Wonder of such a beautiful Can door to the entry of a Vision,
the bustling Fire on my outdoor patio is grace sing the calm of this brisk factor,
as the scene envelopes love with the breeze it truly is a compass on direction shin ole paste,
the click to value that comforting grown of over the barrel in the speaking to comb,
a good clean verse to embrace the letter,
numbers that chorus with song!!
Nature is best as the trust of this season,
Winter does in strange bring habits to sound,
the out of the ordinary email from,
to a prompt response that delivers in Form a shin the Bisque.
Stores on the vacation to travel the journal,
riding the saddle to base of the Nation,
towards Onward Forward its the how and the Why's,
that brings down the found to the Finding be lived!!
Sew to the Thread of silk long Under gears,
shifts to the Staff as the Ford of the Shears,
but discuss the big Bender that drink on Martinelli's,
its the bubble at the fizzy shifting love to the did,
for that which brings Voice to the much best in the lift,
work is the preparation to show of the lived.
Oh for the Great Movie that played on Television,
the premise so bound that Cars are a bridge,
the wind Shield wiping the rein on a give,
the enter Meet E! awe cent to that Stigmata that life is so Snug.
Hard Cider is Truth that will State,
mountain the Shasta with 7-Up on long roads often Hot Chocolate with fudge and the prosed,
scribes come to pen and the sill of that view,
remember those warm evenings that brought Mornings to skip,
stone Quarry's touch Granite at the Mint of Folk lore,
as the Clover does dandy so does the Shore!!
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 01:34 PM PST
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jakob Grimm describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European(PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives and the stop consonants of certain other centum Indo-European languages (Grimm used mostlyLatin and Greek for illustration).
Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change to be discovered in philology; its formulation was a turning point in the development of linguistics, enabling the introduction of a rigorous methodology to historical linguistic research. The correspondence between Latin p and Germanic f was first noted by Friedrich von Schlegel in 1806. In 1818, Rasmus Christian Rask elaborated the set of correspondences to include other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit and Greek, and the full range of consonants involved. In 1822, Jakob Grimm formulated the law as a general rule in his book Deutsche Grammatik, and extended it to include standard German. (Jakob was the elder of theBrothers Grimm.)
Grimm himself already noticed that there were many words that had different consonants from what his law predicted. These exceptions defied linguists for a few decades, but eventually received explanation from Danish linguist Karl Verner in the form of Verner's law.
Grimm's law consists of three parts which form consecutive phases in the sense of a chain shift. The phases are usually constructed as follows:
This chain shift can be abstractly represented as:
Here each sound moves one position to the right to take on its new sound value. Note that within Proto-Germanic, the sounds denoted by ⟨b⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨g⟩ and ⟨gw⟩ were stops in some environments and fricatives in others, so bʰ > b should be understood here as bʰ > b/β, and likewise for the others. The voiceless fricatives are customarily spelled ⟨f⟩, ⟨þ⟩,⟨h⟩ and ⟨hw⟩ in the context of Germanic.
The exact details of the shift are unknown, and it may have progressed in a variety of ways before arriving at the final situation. The three stages listed above show the progression of a "pull chain", in which each change leaves a "gap" in the phonological system that "pulls" other phonemes into it to fill the gap. But it is also conceivable that the shift happened as a push chain, where the changes happened in reverse order, with each change "pushing" the next forward to avoid merging the phonemes.
The steps could also have occurred somewhat differently. Another possible sequence of events could have been:
This sequence would lead to the same end result. This variety of Grimm's law is often suggested in the context of the glottalic theory of Proto-Indo-European, which is followed by a minority of linguists. This theoretical framework assumes that "voiced stops" in PIE were actually voiceless to begin with, so that the second phase did not actually exist as such, or was not actually devoicing but a loss of some other articulatory feature such as glottalization. This alternative sequence also accounts for the phonetics of Verner's law (see below), which are easier to explain within the glottalic theory framework when Grimm's law is formulated in this manner.
Once Grimm's law had taken place, there was only one type of voiced consonant, with no distinction between voiced stops and voiced fricatives. They eventually became stops at the beginning of a word (for the most part), as well as after a nasal consonant, but fricatives elsewhere. Whether they were plosives or fricatives at first is therefore not clear. The voiced aspirated stops may have first become voiced fricatives, before hardening to stops under certain conditions. But they may also have become stops at first, softening to fricatives in most positions later.
Around the same time as Grimm's law took place, another change occurred known as Verner's law. Verner's law caused the voicing of the voiceless fricatives that resulted from Grimm's law under some conditions, creating apparent exceptions to the rule. For example:
Here, the same sound *t appears as *þ in one word (following Grimm's law), but as *d in another (apparently violating Grimm's law). See the Verner's law article for a more detailed explanation of this discrepancy.
The early Germanic *gw that had arisen from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰ (and from *kʷ through Verner's law) underwent further changes of various sorts:
Perhaps the usual reflex was *b (as suggested by the connection of bid < *bidjaną and Old Irish guidid), but *w appears in certain cases (possibly through dissimilation when another labial consonant followed?), such as in warm and wife (provided that the proposed explanations are correct). Proto-Germanic *hw voiced by Verner's law fell together with this sound and developed identically, compare the words for 'she-wolf': from Middle High German wülbe and Old Norse ylgr, one can reconstruct Proto-Germanic nominative singular *wulbī, genitive singular *wulgijōz, from earlier *wulgwī, *wulgwijōz.[not in citation given]
Further changes following Grimm's law, as well as sound changes in other Indo-European languages, can sometimes obscure its effects. The most illustrative examples are used here.
This is strikingly regular. Each phase involves one single change which applies equally to the labials (p, b, bʰ, f) and their equivalent dentals (t, d, dʰ, þ), velars (k, g, gʰ, h) and rounded velars (kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ, hʷ). The first phase left the phoneme repertoire of the language without voiceless stops, the second phase filled this gap, but created a new one, and so on until the chain had run its course.
Behaviour in consonant clusters
When two obstruents occurred in a pair, the first underwent Grimm's law if possible, while the second did not. If either of the two was voiceless, the whole cluster was devoiced, and the first obstruent also lost its labialisation, if it was present.
Most examples of this occurred with obstruents preceded by *s (resulting in *sp, *st, *sk, *skʷ), or obstruents followed by *t (giving *ft, *ss, *ht, *ht) or *s (giving *fs, *ss, *hs, *hs). The latter change was frequent in suffixes, and became a phonotactic restriction known as the Germanic spirant law. This rule remained productive throughout the Proto-Germanic period. The cluster *tt became *ss, but this was often restored to *st later on.
Examples with preceding *s:
Examples with following *t:
Correspondences to PIE
The Germanic "sound laws", combined with regular changes reconstructed for other Indo-European languages, allow one to define the expected sound correspondences between different branches of the family. For example, Germanic (word-initial) *b- corresponds regularly to Latin *f-, Greek pʰ-, Sanskrit bʰ-, Slavic, Baltic or Celtic b-, etc., while Germanic *f- corresponds to Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Slavic and Baltic p- and to zero (no initial consonant) in Celtic. The former set goes back to PIE *bʰ- (faithfully reflected in Sanskrit and modified in various ways elsewhere), and the latter set to PIE *p- (shifted in Germanic, lost in Celtic, but preserved in the other groups mentioned here).
One of the more conspicuous present surface correspondences is the English digraph wh and the corresponding Latin and Romance digraph qu, notably found in interrogative words (wh-words) such as the five Ws. These both come from kʷ, which is echoed in the phonemic spelling kw (as in kwik) for qu. The present pronunciations have undergone further sound changes, such as wh-cluster reductions in English, though the spellings reflect the history more; see Interrogative word: Etymology for details.
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 10:14 AM PST
Dance the Elocution to thee Brass of the Ballet on the Teak at the jade of Oak Tree Deeds!!!,
raised on the shore of that oat,
meal with Dinner and breakfast this Buffet!!
There it is Plain as A Day on the Perch,
found on that travel of sail to Waves,
beaches tell Shores that the Sands a trail??
Be of the Opera on the Symphony of Truth and Shale,
chess is a game and Well checkers is the Battleship of detail Note,
this is the trade of the dawn on a Trail of the ride!!
oh I know it must be that per Fume of bottle pressure to or corked Champagne,
or is the screw top on the plywood of making a House to blow down the hey,
stacks on the library in cycle la Pea deed uh a difference to walk the course of life on a squirrel.
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 06:40 AM PST
Stand!! these Hose days to the nigh lawns on the perk Trades,
be that Leaf on the Staples!!!
Raise the bar touch this Comprehension talk Ballet!!,
pointe width the stagger of Card for the Trump gone Song,
lyrics with a trip!!,
journey to the Catcher's Mitt??
State the Mint of Coins Change to the Beauty of the stretch Nice & slowly speak spelling,
drive with virtue to the Pitch!!!
Rise from the Toy for the Joker is more the sticker in the Stag but OH for the Bell,
All Ways in the Deck,
its a Poker trace on the Blackjack,
pun yourself an ease.
With Table mail Soar the Venue with Absolute!!!,
shore to this gratitude for the Naps are the sleep pea eyes on a state!!,
thank the barrel!!!,
treasure the Brail!!!,
speech of the simplicity of the average Daily Pale on the dye of All Skinned,
brave to that is the Moon on her bucket change!!!
sync the Hammer??
Staff that lumber??
deal the Copper of the Pin Onion Knee^ULD^Send??
Oh My its a Water Trace System mark Kit.
Cheeks rose E! talking the Wall up from the brick Buy bic Political???,
dust jackets to scope of the zest Teak cools???,
Tea Party Tees???,
Why's the Bare ole.
patience the satisfactorily Bulb mail???,
aye for the soil give Inn,
like the candy had a care a Mole on the Hedge corn of the bushels!!!
Have the steak,
take the Ham,
beans lean a Popcorn??,
kernel of the In dee An corn knee uh,
hook Sync cod???,
peels of dried lime or Lemon???,
of course . . . . . . its A 'Mar' tea Knee. . . . . The Ore of Breakfast At Tiff a Knees!!!!!!!!!
Is It Standards, Poles, Jumps, Grids, Verticals, Unparrel Bars Or A Course Yet To Be Set Without The Cup Matching Fulcrum??
Posted: 25 Dec 2015 05:01 AM PST
Also the strange of today on the clock a date on the calendar for the tree from the state,
cut out of forest a grove on the scene tall or the perfection trimmed ankle to silk,
decor is the price lights shining bright,
with a beautiful measure of the windows on sleep.
Raise touching fireplaces drawing rooms fleets,
people gather to stair to the skeet,
does the morning bring truth with reason to Feat??
Sew thread And silk in that fiber Brain thought,
days on the thimble Needles to desk,
written at method as to bring Envelope text,
would this simple act Chin to increase only Fed??
lie width the sand dialing shore,
land with the mountain Volcanic by frame,
heat in the rock ask molt tin due change,
spread through the sky as the clouds quest a snout.
While the shapes present concourse an direction is air awe,
the gravel is sharper that smooth facial story,
smile shell sake to those clams muscles grace,
operate discus in a language on sliced.
People Mankind Humanity Form ole,
that Ancient cob Blur that Corn said its Tide,
salt Tea tiers Waves speaking Sight,
waltzing the movement off the balance of sewn,
excitement dances across the cliff Poils,
does the stretch yawn with dawn or horizon the silt??,
look at the sediment its full to the Brim,
yet Fire & Ice is the step of steeped send.