Friday, December 25, 2015

What Is Operation Prim Rose??

Now in the Riddle is the Poetry of that Park Rise to Event the Safe Tea as A course,
the standard transmission is of shifting to the automobile that else drives for the coming is automatic,
as secure from is of at lathe to bring piece on the puts it is not the whatevers that will stoke,
for I in many a evening drove as minor passenger to the Golden Gate Park for lumber,
the falling or the left timbers that the Hour Officials had trunk severed to in eventual shred,
the lesson on the teach was the clamber.

That chatter in silence of bringing rise to the warmth of a fireplace in steady on the Tune,
those character differences enveloped in some time of thought to know the ax versing the maul,
as that quest chin would narrow the tunnel  it is the known of Wares to the making of shorts,
at wall to brick the formal production placed structure to cadence from To,
in just the plates of pottery shelf The Pantry made for the Phone Booth of As say.

Truth puts to The World champagne Trips to the Scene a pea,
for I am only a little being,
it is the grace of the rake drawing a satisfactory day at the barn of goods & lark!!

This Country has pictured bark while ignoring the framed,
a guild is either the gold or the know of a sound as the telephone prompts,
is the block and Cue to pool stick on the Tablet or the brain on A rack??,
does the World nigh the Instruction as this Country embraces its Tarmac??,
the Airplanes storage to the belly of freight has wondered me in this inside of the fud,
elmer with a try angle just strapping the verse with words in a fluid stream of consciousness sleeved,
so I role`d up my bother to this blog on the whittled sharp Notes to speak the muse ankle flute.

When The Worry Is Over What Is The Sew^Duh??

The darkness of This Worlds Now on the Hour is the Clock and minus Time,
the Ages warned of the demise with blood Pouring alley streets to Red shored,
that the heads of execution would shed to the disconnect of shoulder down on the concreted fork,
as that is the done for Trump has brought past tense to the leader boards a compass of suit,
it is at the was a when Win now on the Minute its a Win when to detail his divide on a conquered country.

The short stint of His Stir has already been bellow,
the chin a route to paper Media on the a cent meant decision to chute the birth,
as that is the swamp of logger`d depth of thick rich red bleed it is the multiplication,
the billions to Trillions on that exit of the born to birth death as their entry to sport,
the games of what thought life was of choice will channel the television to Live beep Beep,
that calendar is not dependent on the Presidents Office as official to stop talk,
the conversation will bark to the Steeps as the Steam trained His Stir is in the start only for Warm-Ups are on the corked.

Each day at the medley of His Stir to this Nations National charge has in At done Carved deep Caulk kissed,
that bravado of His Stir is the Tam^boar^Ring my Older Sisters field at the Address of 815 as a Pork,
the fried Bacon is all in the stumped as the reason a tempt to ration the scale of fear crawling spines.

Heave what the arson is in the incinerator of the troublers of waddled lane,
the stage which the ewes provided gave Trump is opportone to the orange of the 'H' stile`d to grave,
the soil was the Muds in average cake scope but that bang gulled to the flight of World War II at reel,
those books of Jim Moseley and his exit took to the Bridge a decision to the Book of grown.

These theory??,
no the brain strides nightmares to the silent scream in each severed sleep,
awake to full childs strip,
the bare in a Worlds Skip.

Stone walls will end Up bean,
the Wish cobble Will end Up being the Snapper,
fish the People,
Poker the Crowds,
dumb deaths to grave Sit tolls as the price Fixed on His Stir off The bone`d.

What Is Hot Shoeing??

Today is December the 25th of Two-thousand Fifteen at exactly 2:26 PM on the clock,
this is a day that has brought enter Web to what I did not know of as active be gone,
thus the letters of posts that have shot from hand to the wrest of music at taught Sea.

The call of the Home that is in San Francisco answered in gratitude the Oregon of residence,
in that the Front Door was the the bell ringing twas Hello from To thus this conversation on silents.

My Mother is found to be of strength to the voice,
vernacular rang to structure of course,
steady on the best I have heard her in years,
lifted from troubles of trouble some Piers!!

To this simplicity the Complex is those actual Inks well,
for the Mountains of Fountain the Seltzer of tells,
in not what was part of the conversation for shell but that Leek Soup was a Cucumber Dill.

Sew as the fiber of language theme brought address to the staff,
a curious detail phoned the cellar tack,
saddle on girth the Bridle bit truth,
a Compass of North by the West of the lead.

First it came with enter the keyboard of strike up the Query,
than it gave no pandora to Bing,
that cable car verse to the sold at the lock,
leaving a Leaf to gargantuan knot.

the depth to the Blink is of Windshields cropped,
for cheeks are rosy with bubbling stock,
safe to secure with My Grandparents lot,
infamous driveway with Oak Trees speak to the Birch that just breeze.

The scent of lovely must bring such love just on spot,
the tremendous favor to that road with a knock,
to conversations that memory a file of Chess that does not fall down As the dominoes pot,
green tea Beethoven Darjeeling english Breakfast with Mozart as Bach,
for while the collection grew to well grace in the spice,
play the piano write Music to hop Scotch these are the Words that bring Discovery to be *bop!! 

  • Bop, (to bop or boppin') a style to dance solo to rockabilly or blues music, common since the 1950s
  • Bop, shortened form of Bebop, an early modern jazz developed in the 1940s
    • hard bop, a style of jazz music that is extension of bebop (or "bop") music

What's An All-Purpose Pad??

Loving today and the Wonder of such a beautiful Can door to the entry of a Vision,
the bustling Fire on my outdoor patio is grace sing the calm of this brisk factor,
as the scene envelopes love with the breeze it truly is a compass on direction shin ole paste,
the click to value that comforting grown of over the barrel in the speaking to comb,
a good clean verse to embrace the letter,
numbers that chorus with song!!

Nature is best as the trust of this season,
Winter does in strange bring habits to sound,
the out of the ordinary email from,
to a prompt response that delivers in Form a shin the Bisque.

Stores on the vacation to travel the journal,
riding the saddle to base of the Nation,
towards Onward Forward its the how and the Why's,
that brings down the found to the Finding be lived!!

Sew to the Thread of silk long Under gears,
shifts to the Staff as the Ford of the Shears,
but discuss the big Bender that drink on Martinelli's,
its the bubble at the fizzy shifting love to the did,
for that which brings Voice to the much best in the lift,
work is the preparation to show of the lived.

Oh for the Great Movie that played on Television,
the premise so bound that Cars are a bridge,
the wind Shield wiping the rein on a give,
the enter Meet E! awe cent to that Stigmata that life is so Snug.

Hard Cider is Truth that will State,
mountain the Shasta with 7-Up on long roads often Hot Chocolate with fudge and the prosed,
scribes come to pen and the sill of that view,
remember those warm evenings that brought Mornings to skip,
stone Quarry's touch Granite at the Mint of Folk lore,
as the Clover does dandy so does the Shore!! 

Characteristics Of Or Role Language??

Grimm's law

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jakob Grimm describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European(PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives and the stop consonants of certain other centum Indo-European languages (Grimm used mostlyLatin and Greek for illustration).


Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change to be discovered in philology; its formulation was a turning point in the development of linguistics, enabling the introduction of a rigorous methodology to historical linguistic research. The correspondence between Latin p and Germanic f was first noted by Friedrich von Schlegel in 1806. In 1818, Rasmus Christian Rask elaborated the set of correspondences to include other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit and Greek, and the full range of consonants involved. In 1822, Jakob Grimm formulated the law as a general rule in his book Deutsche Grammatik, and extended it to include standard German. (Jakob was the elder of theBrothers Grimm.)
Grimm himself already noticed that there were many words that had different consonants from what his law predicted. These exceptions defied linguists for a few decades, but eventually received explanation from Danish linguist Karl Verner in the form of Verner's law.


Grimm's law consists of three parts which form consecutive phases in the sense of a chain shift.[1] The phases are usually constructed as follows:
  1. Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives.
  2. Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.
  3. Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced stops or fricatives (as allophones).
This chain shift can be abstractly represented as:
  •  > b > p > ɸ
  •  > d > t > θ
  •  > g > k > x
  • gʷʰ >  >  > 
Here each sound moves one position to the right to take on its new sound value. Note that within Proto-Germanic, the sounds denoted by bdg and gw were stops in some environments and fricatives in others, so  > b should be understood here as  > b/β, and likewise for the others. The voiceless fricatives are customarily spelled fþ,h and hw in the context of Germanic.
The exact details of the shift are unknown, and it may have progressed in a variety of ways before arriving at the final situation. The three stages listed above show the progression of a "pull chain", in which each change leaves a "gap" in the phonological system that "pulls" other phonemes into it to fill the gap. But it is also conceivable that the shift happened as a push chain, where the changes happened in reverse order, with each change "pushing" the next forward to avoid merging the phonemes.
The steps could also have occurred somewhat differently. Another possible sequence of events could have been:
  1. Voiceless stops are allophonically aspirated under most conditions.
  2. Voiced stops become voiceless stops.
  3. Aspirated stops become fricatives.
This sequence would lead to the same end result. This variety of Grimm's law is often suggested in the context of the glottalic theory of Proto-Indo-European, which is followed by a minority of linguists. This theoretical framework assumes that "voiced stops" in PIE were actually voiceless to begin with, so that the second phase did not actually exist as such, or was not actually devoicing but a loss of some other articulatory feature such as glottalization. This alternative sequence also accounts for the phonetics of Verner's law (see below), which are easier to explain within the glottalic theory framework when Grimm's law is formulated in this manner.

Further changes[edit]

Once Grimm's law had taken place, there was only one type of voiced consonant, with no distinction between voiced stops and voiced fricatives. They eventually became stops at the beginning of a word (for the most part), as well as after a nasal consonant, but fricatives elsewhere. Whether they were plosives or fricatives at first is therefore not clear. The voiced aspirated stops may have first become voiced fricatives, before hardening to stops under certain conditions. But they may also have become stops at first, softening to fricatives in most positions later.
Around the same time as Grimm's law took place, another change occurred known as Verner's law. Verner's law caused the voicing of the voiceless fricatives that resulted from Grimm's law under some conditions, creating apparent exceptions to the rule. For example:
  • Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr ("brother") > Proto-Germanic *brōþēr (Old English broþor, Old High German bruothar/bruodar)
  • Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr ("father") > Proto-Germanic *fadēr (Old English fæder, Old High German fatar)
Here, the same sound *t appears as  in one word (following Grimm's law), but as *d in another (apparently violating Grimm's law). See the Verner's law article for a more detailed explanation of this discrepancy.
The early Germanic *gw that had arisen from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰ (and from *kʷ through Verner's law) underwent further changes of various sorts:
  • After *n it was preserved as a labiovelar stop *gw, but later changed to a plain velar *g in West Germanic.
  • Following vowels, it seems to have become *w, presumably through a fricative stage *ɣʷ.
  • Word-initially, the most plausible reflex is a labiovelar stop *gʷ at first, but the further development is unclear. In that position, it became either *w*g or *b during late Proto-Germanic.
  • The regular reflex next to *u would likely have been *g, due to loss of the labial element before a labial vowel. (See boukólos rule)
Perhaps the usual reflex was *b (as suggested by the connection of bid < *bidjaną and Old Irish guidid), but *w appears in certain cases (possibly through dissimilation when another labial consonant followed?), such as in warm and wife (provided that the proposed explanations are correct). Proto-Germanic *hw voiced by Verner's law fell together with this sound and developed identically, compare the words for 'she-wolf': from Middle High German wülbe[citation needed] and Old Norse ylgr, one can reconstruct Proto-Germanic nominative singular *wulbī, genitive singular *wulgijōz, from earlier *wulgwī*wulgwijōz.[2][not in citation given]


Further changes following Grimm's law, as well as sound changes in other Indo-European languages, can sometimes obscure its effects. The most illustrative examples are used here.
Proto-Indo-EuropeanMeaningNon-Germanic (unshifted) cognatesChangeProto-GermanicGermanic (shifted) examples
*pṓds"foot"Ancient Greek: πούς, ποδός (poús, podós), Latin:pēs, pedis, Sanskrit: pāda, Russian: под (pod) "under; floor", Lithuanian: pėda, Latvian pēda*p > f [ɸ]*fōt-English: foot, West Frisian: foet, German: Fuß, Gothic: fōtus, Icelandic, Faroese: fótur, Danish: fod, Norwegian, Swedish: fot
*trit(y)ós"third"Ancient Greek: τρίτος (tritos), Latin: tertius, Welsh:trydydd, Sanskrit: treta, Russian: третий (tretij), Lithuanian: trečias, Albanian: tretë*t > þ [θ]*þridjôEnglish: third, Old Frisian: thredda, Old Saxon: thriddio, Gothic:þridja, Icelandic: þriðji, Danish: tredje
*ḱwón- ~ *ḱun-"dog"Ancient Greek: κύων (kýōn), Latin: canis, Welsh: ci(pl. cwn)*k > h [x]*hundazEnglish: hound, Dutch: hond, German: Hund, Gothic: hunds, Icelandic, Faroese: hundur, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish: hund
*kʷód"what"Latin: quod, Irish: cad, Sanskrit: kád, Russian: ко- (ko-), Lithuanian: kas* > hw [xʷ]*hwatEnglish: what, Gothic: ƕa ("hwa"), Icelandic: hvað, Faroese:hvat, Danish: hvad, Norwegian: hva
*dʰewb-"deep"Lithuanian: dubùs*b > p [p]*deupazEnglish: deep, West Frisian: djip, Dutch: diep, Icelandic: djúpur, Swedish: djup, Gothic diups
*déḱm̥t"ten"Latin: decem, Greek: δέκα (déka), Irish: deich, Sanskrit: daśan, Russian: десять (desyat'), Lithuanian: dešimt*d > t [t]*tehunEnglish: ten, Dutch: tien, Gothic: taíhun, Icelandic: tíu, Faroese: tíggju, Danish, Norwegian: ti, Swedish: tio
*gel-"cold"Latin: gelū, Greek: γελανδρός (gelandrós), Lithuanian: gelmenis, gelumà*g > k [k]*kaldazEnglish: cold, West Frisian: kâld, Dutch: koud, German: kalt, Icelandic, Faroese: kaldur, Danish: kold, Norwegian: kald, Swedish: kall
*gʷih₃wós"alive"Lithuanian: gyvas, Russian:, живой (živoj), Sanskritjīvá-* > kw [kʷ]*kwi(k)wazEnglish: quick, West Frisian: kwik, kwyk, Dutch: kwiek, German: keck, Gothic: qius, Icelandic, Faroese: kvikur, Danish:kvik, Swedish: kvick, Norwegian kvikk
*bʰréh₂tēr"brother"Sanskrit: bhrātṛ, Ancient Greek: φρατήρ (phrātēr) ("member of a brotherhood")* > b [b]/[β]*brōþērEnglish: brother, West Frisian, Dutch: broeder, German:Bruder, Gothic: broþar, Icelandic, Faroese: bróðir, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian: broder
*médʰu"honey"Sanskrit: mádhu, Homeric Greek: μέθυ (methu)* > d [d]/[ð]*meduzEnglish: mead, East Frisian: meede, Dutch: mede, Danish/Norwegian: mjød, Icelandic: mjöður , Swedish: mjöd
*steygʰ-"walk, step"Sanskrit: stighnoti, Ancient Greek: στείχειν (steíkhein)* > g [ɡ]/[ɣ]*stīganąOld English: stīgan, Dutch: stijgen, German: steigen, Icelandic, Faroese: stíga, Danish, Norwegian: stige, Gothic steigan (all meaning "ascend, climb")
*sengʷʰ-"sing"Homeric Greek: ἐάφθη (eáphthē) "sang, sounded",ὀμφή (omphē) "voice"*gʷʰ > gw [ɡʷ]
(After n)
*singwanąEnglish: sing, West Frisian: sjonge, Dutch: zingen, German:singen, Gothic: siggwan, Old Icelandic: syngvasyngja, Icelandic, Faroese: syngja, Swedish: sjunga, Danish:synge/sjunge
*gʷʰermós"warm"Sanskrit: gharmá-, Avestan: garəmó, Old Prussian:gorme*gʷʰ > gw > {b, g w}
(Otherwise merged with existing g andw)
*warmazEnglish: warm, West Frisian: waarm, Dutch, German: warm, Swedish: varm, Icelandic: varmur
This is strikingly regular. Each phase involves one single change which applies equally to the labials (p, b, bʰ, f) and their equivalent dentals (t, d, dʰ, þ), velars (k, g, gʰ, h) and rounded velars (kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ, hʷ). The first phase left the phoneme repertoire of the language without voiceless stops, the second phase filled this gap, but created a new one, and so on until the chain had run its course.

Behaviour in consonant clusters[edit]

When two obstruents occurred in a pair, the first underwent Grimm's law if possible, while the second did not. If either of the two was voiceless, the whole cluster was devoiced, and the first obstruent also lost its labialisation, if it was present.
Most examples of this occurred with obstruents preceded by *s (resulting in *sp, *st, *sk, *skʷ), or obstruents followed by *t (giving *ft, *ss, *ht, *ht) or *s (giving *fs, *ss, *hs, *hs). The latter change was frequent in suffixes, and became a phonotactic restriction known as the Germanic spirant law. This rule remained productive throughout the Proto-Germanic period. The cluster *tt became *ss, but this was often restored to *st later on.
Examples with preceding *s:
Non-Germanic examplesChangeGermanic examples
Latin: spuere, Lithuanian: spjáuti*spEnglish: spew, West Frisian: spije, Dutch: spuwen, German: speien, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish:spy, Icelandic: spýja, Faroese: spýggja, Gothic: speiwan
Latin: stāre, Irish: stad, Sanskrit: sta, Russian: стать (stat'), Lithuanian: stoti, Persian: ايستادن (istâdan)*stEnglish: stand, Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian: standa, Gothic: standan; West Frisian: stean, Dutch: staan, German: stehen, Danish, Swedish: stå
Lithuanian: skurdus*skEnglish: short, Old High German: scurz, Icelandic: skorta
Irish: scéal*skʷEnglish: scold, Icelandic: skáld, Norwegian: skald; West Frisian: skelle, Dutch: schelden, German:schelten
  • Some linguists dispute the origin of the word "scold", but Julius Pokorny among others proposed *skwetlo as the assumed root.
  • English and German later underwent a change /sk/ > /ʃ/. German also changed /sp/ and /st/ to /ʃp/ and /ʃt/.
  • Dutch has /sk/ > /sx/, though this is a separate development that occurred in Middle Dutch.
Examples with following *t:
Non-Germanic examplesChangeGermanic examples
Ancient Greek: κλέπτης (kleptēs), Old Prussian: au-klipts "hidden"*pt→ftGothic: hliftus "thief"
Latin: atta, Greek: ἄττα (átta)*tt→ttOld High German: atto, Gothic: atta "father"
Ancient Greek: οκτώ (oktō), Irish: ocht, Latin: octō*kt→htEnglish: eight, West Frisian, Dutch, German: acht, Gothic:ahtáu, Icelandic: átta (pronounced [ˈauhta])
Irish: anocht, Latin: nox, noct-, Greek: νύξ, νυκτ- (núks, nukt-), Sanskrit: नक्तम् (naktam), Lithuanian:naktis, Hittite (genitive): nekuz (pronounced /nekʷts/)*kʷt→htEnglish: night, West Frisian, Dutch, German: nacht, Gothic:nahts, Icelandic: nótt (pronounced [ˈnouht])
  • Icelandic nótt /nouht/ comes from Old Norse nǫ́ttnátt, from Proto-Germanic *naht-. The Germanic *ht regularly becomes *tt in Old Norse, and this then becomes preaspirated in Icelandic. Thus, the [h] of the modern Icelandic form is not a direct descendant of the Germanic /h/.[3] The same ancestry holds for the /tt/ of Icelandic átta as well.[4]

Correspondences to PIE[edit]

The Germanic "sound laws", combined with regular changes reconstructed for other Indo-European languages, allow one to define the expected sound correspondences between different branches of the family. For example, Germanic (word-initial) *b- corresponds regularly to Latin *f-, Greek pʰ-Sanskrit bʰ-SlavicBaltic or Celtic b-, etc., while Germanic *f- corresponds to Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Slavic and Baltic p- and to zero (no initial consonant) in Celtic. The former set goes back to PIE *bʰ- (faithfully reflected in Sanskrit and modified in various ways elsewhere), and the latter set to PIE *p- (shifted in Germanic, lost in Celtic, but preserved in the other groups mentioned here).
One of the more conspicuous present surface correspondences is the English digraph wh and the corresponding Latin and Romance digraph qu, notably found in interrogative words (wh-words) such as the five Ws. These both come from , which is echoed in the phonemic spelling kw (as in kwik) for qu. The present pronunciations have undergone further sound changes, such as wh-cluster reductions in English, though the spellings reflect the history more; see Interrogative word: Etymology for details.