Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Answer Spock!

The bells and a taste of talk rafter is the Sale of mother Board's it's truth,
that chord of plug to eclectic child of the 2016 big grew,
off in that future of speaking in the reality of seen to scenes,
that rolling ties to compass of now,
in I the Seer is a style of at Dressed and the World just dued.

In whom may find that this message is the Sentence,
children on the continue have hard bearings with fleet of West,
cheer the child in front of your flight of raise,
as you choose to never acknowledge this I just say that it's a byte.

Frost is not the Freeze,
warmth from I to expel your less,
to toast people have for doored the thresholds loosed.

Knight Cross Sing!!!! Brexit And All You Need To Know About The You Kaye With The *ICAO Code Description Provided For Sake Yet The Transparency Is Not Pokemon Go, Rather The Rules & Regulations Of The NFL Of Course: http://operations.nfl.com/media/2224/2016-nfl-rulebook.pdf

Where is a thread that the stay is not repliant to an Instant Message tick to fit the characterchure of the method's of today's quick Lick (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lick-Wilmerding_High_School), and reliant on the latest App. to Tweet that never grasp of a conversation to an actual read and not shot through to only rifle a mind at cost of price fixed to apron only string??  Where are words defined not to the World Soccer of Media, and it's fee^lean's of product to commercial that chair's Anchor's, Co-Anchor's, Host's and Co-host's the platform and or desk to 'push or pull or flag' a prescription to bump a method to dock^tours and Ten^men??  This Games a good tie to conversation and not name calling to discuss the current World Situation Room in safety and not behind closed doors and now for attention to detail the following!!!!

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2016 OFFICIAL Playing Rules for Conversation...
 Posted Today @ 07:47   
Last Login: Today @ 08:15 
The world on the spin and from this thread the U.S.A. and last night's Debate 2016 with the Republican and Democratic Candidate's at the stage of global review is cause prevalent to I an American to say to the old timer's on this site, where are you now in the stance of my country and it's now stranger Vista of live-t.v.?? Blunt did sing on 'Some Kind of Trouble' his third studio album as a British singer-songwriter. *Superstar was released November 8th, 2010 something that is no-longer ironic or even irony gone boo as to shock the value with a jeepers, it has rather upped the value of that old boy's lyrics to the truth, and that makes the wording apropos today, as it will be six years to the weirdest fate of stranger than life, is it destiny, happenstance or coincidence?? Believe it or not **"the United States presidential election of 2016, scheduled for Tuesday, November 8, 2016, will be the 58th quadrennial U.S. presidential election, Voters will select presidential electors, who in turn will vote for a new president and vice president through the Electoral College" and the common date to line is stranger than writing a tune while riding the Tube. Court the shirt to a whale of a tale and then master the art of expression as what is a blurb but a sake to own the degree of artistry at the register to fact not friction??

Terms of agreement in American National Media whether recognized or not are currently using Football as the verb to play and adjective display in every describe of vernacular it's sports cued. As we agreed long ago to sing wherever we go lets see how the games in your home school in years between can counter a discussion via expressive's with no name calling. Here is a pdf 2016 official playing rules of the national football league (NFL) a file that I am providing for Football Only. Football is an all-american sport and passtime and people often confuse the game of football with soccer. Please do not feel obligated to open this pdf file as you can find the common referee calls and game rules on-line. This is just to let you know that this is not the same as what some might suppose and in that case it simplifies the search. I am confident that Billy won't let this link on unless it's safe to use as he has always been extremely thorough with malware threats. So without further a due the link; http://operations.nfl.com/media/2224/2016-nfl-rulebook.pdf



There is an empty space in the chair tonight
Cause he don't feel right
There are stormclouds brewing at the back of his mind
As he steps outside

He will be twenty in a week
But he's old for his years
He's had many of those
To confront his own fears

But his father's not the man he'd like to grow up to be
And his mother isn't growing old gracefully

He says times like these I don't want to be a superstar
Cause reality tv killed them all in america
Oh the sun always shines in a magazine
Tonight can we be free to be who we really are

There is an empty space between the lines tonight
And it burns so bright
And the angry silence that he throws on the floor
Says he don't care anymore

He had money for the truth
But love's a lot more
And the answer's is not the one he was looking for
His father's not the man he'd like to grow up to be
And his mother is his mother reluctantly

He says times like these I don't want to be a superstar
Cause reality tv killed them all in america
Oh the sun always shines in a magazine
Tonight can we be free to be who we really are

He says times like these I don't want to be a superstar
Cause reality tv killed them all in america
Oh the sun always shines in a magazine
Tonight can we be free to be who we really are

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© 2016 Atlantic Records


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kaye may refer to:

*International Civil Aviation Organization

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from ICAO)
International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale(French)
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
Flag of ICAO.svg
ICAO flag
Formation4 April 1947[1]
TypeUN specialized agency
Legal statusActive
Dr. Fang Liu
Secretary General
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, pronounced /ˈk./FrenchOrganisation de l'aviation civile internationaleOACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.[2] Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of MontrealCanada.
The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).
The Air Navigation Commission (ANC) is the technical body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAO's contracting states, and appointed by the ICAO Council.[3] Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives. The development of Aviation Standards and Recommended Practices is done under the direction of the ANC through the formal process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the political body of ICAO, for consultation and coordination with the Member States before final adoption.
ICAO is distinct from other international air transport organizations, like the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a trade association representing airlines; the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO), an organization for Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs); and the Airports Council International, a trade association of airport authorities.


The forerunner to ICAO was the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN).[2] It held its first convention in 1903 in BerlinGermany but no agreements were reached among the eight countries that attended. At the second convention in 1906, also held in Berlin, 27 countries attended. The third convention, held in London in 1912 allocated the first radio callsigns for use by aircraft. ICAN continued to operate until 1945.[4][5]
Fifty-two countries signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, in ChicagoIllinois, on 7 December 1944. Under its terms, aProvisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was to be established, to be replaced in turn by a permanent organization when 26 countries ratified the convention. Accordingly, PICAO began operating on 6 June 1945, replacing ICAN. The 26th country ratified the Convention on 5 March 1947 and, consequently PICAO was disestablished on 4 April 1947 and replaced by ICAO, which began operations the same day. In October 1947, ICAO became an agency of the United Nations linked to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[1][4]
In April 2013, Qatar offered to serve as the new permanent seat of the Organization. Qatar promised to construct a massive new headquarters for ICAO and cover all moving expenses, stating that Montreal "was too far from Europe and Asia", "had cold winters," was hard to attend due to the refusal of the Canadian government to provide visas in a timely manner, and that the taxes imposed on ICAO by Canada were too high.[6] According to the Globe and Mail, Qatar's move was at least partly motivated by the pro-Israel foreign policy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.[7][8] Approximately one month later, Qatar withdrew its bid after a separate proposal to the ICAO's governing council to move the ICAO triennial conference to Doha was defeated by a vote of 22–14.[9][10][11]


The 9th edition of the Convention on International Civil Aviation includes modifications from 1948 up to year 2006. ICAO refers to its current edition of the Convention as theStatute, and designates it as ICAO Document 7300/9. The Convention has 19 Annexes that are listed by title in the article Convention on International Civil Aviation.[12]


International Civil Aviation Organization member states
As of March 2016, there are 191 ICAO members, consisting of 190 of the 193 UN members (all but DominicaLiechtenstein, and Tuvalu), plus the Cook Islands.[13][14]
Liechtenstein has delegated Switzerland to implement the treaty to make it applicable in the territory of Liechtenstein.[15]
Taiwan attended the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly in 2013, but in 2016 was denied such an invitation (possibly due to political pressure from the People’s Republic of China), despite expressions of support from the United States for Taiwan to participate.[16] However, Republic of China under the name of Chinese Taipei is a member of International Air Transport Association.


The Council of ICAO is elected by the Assembly every 3 years and consists of 36 members elected in 3 categories. The present Council was elected on 1 October 2013 at the 38th Assembly of ICAO at Montreal.[17] The structure of the present Council is as follows:
PART I – (States of chief importance in air transport) – Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States. All of them have been re-elected.[17]
PART II – (States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation) – Argentina, Egypt, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain and Venezuela. Except Norway, Portugal and Venezuela, all others have been re-elected.[17]
PART III– (States ensuring geographic representation)- Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chile, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia, Nicaragua, Poland, Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates and United Republic of Tanzania. Poland has been elected for the first time.[17]


ICAO logo.
Top: ICAO acronym in English, French/Portuguese/Spanish, and Russian.
Bottom: ICAO acronym in Chinese and Arabic
ICAO also standardizes certain functions for use in the airline industry, such as the Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS). This makes it a standards organization.
Each country should have an accessible Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), based on standards defined by ICAO, containing information essential to air navigation. Countries are required to update their AIP manuals every 28 days and so provide definitive regulations, procedures and information for each country about airspace and airports. ICAO's standards also dictate that temporary hazards to aircraft are regularly published using NOTAMs.
ICAO defines an International Standard Atmosphere (also known as ICAO Standard Atmosphere), a model of the standard variation ofpressuretemperaturedensity, and viscosity with altitude in the Earth's atmosphere. This is useful in calibrating instruments and designing aircraft.[18]
ICAO standardizes machine-readable passports worldwide.[19] Such passports have an area where some of the information otherwise written in textual form is written as strings of alphanumeric characters, printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition. This enables border controllers and other law enforcement agents to process such passports quickly, without having to enter the information manually into a computer. ICAO publishes Document 9303 Machine Readable Travel Documents, the technical standard for machine-readable passports.[20] A more recent standard is for biometric passports. These contain biometrics to authenticate the identity of travellers. The passport's critical information is stored on a tiny RFID computer chip, much like information stored on smartcards. Like some smartcards, the passport book design calls for an embedded contactless chip that is able to hold digital signature data to ensure the integrity of the passport and the biometric data.
ICAO is active in infrastructure management, including CommunicationNavigationSurveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems, which employ digital technologies (like satellite systems with various levels of automation) in order to maintain a seamless global air traffic management system.[21]

Registered codes[edit]

Both ICAO and IATA have their own airport and airline code systems. ICAO uses 4-letter airport codes (vs. IATA's 3-letter codes). The ICAO code is based on the region and country of the airport—for example, Charles de Gaulle Airport has an ICAO code of LFPG, where L indicates Southern Europe, F, France, PG, Paris de Gaulle, while Orly Airporthas the code LFPO (the 3rd letter sometimes refers to the particular flight information region (FIR) or the last two may be arbitrary). In most of the world, ICAO and IATA codes are unrelated; for example, Charles de Gaulle Airport has an IATA code of CDG. However, the location prefix for continental United States is K and ICAO codes are usually the IATA code with this prefix. For example, the ICAO code for Los Angeles International Airport is KLAX. Canada follows a similar pattern, where a prefix of C is usually added to an IATA code to create the ICAO code. For example, Edmonton International Airport is YEG or CYEG. (In contrast, airports in Hawaii are in the Pacific region and so have ICAO codes that start with PHKona International Airport's code is PHKO. Similarly, airports in Alaska have ICAO codes that start with PAMerrill Field, for instance is PAMR.) Note that not all airports are assigned codes in both systems; for example, airports that do not have airline service do not need an IATA code.
ICAO also assigns 3-letter airline codes (versus the more-familiar 2-letter IATA codes—for example, UAL vs. UA for United Airlines). ICAO also provides telephony designators to aircraft operators worldwide, a one- or two-word designator used on the radio, usually, but not always, similar to the aircraft operator name. For example, the identifier for Japan Airlines International is JAL and the designator is Japan Air, but Aer Lingus is EIN and Shamrock. Thus, a Japan Airlines flight numbered 111 would be written as "JAL111" and pronounced "Japan Air One One One" on the radio, while a similarly numbered Aer Lingus would be written as "EIN111" and pronounced "Shamrock One One One". In the US, FAA practices[22] require the digits of the flight number to be spoken in group format ("Japan Air One Eleven" in the above example) while individual digits are used for the aircraft tail number used for unscheduled civil flights.
ICAO maintains the standards for aircraft registration ("tail numbers"), including the alphanumeric codes that identify the country of registration. For example, airplanes registered in the United States have tail numbers starting with N.
ICAO is also responsible for issuing alphanumeric aircraft type codes containing two to four characters. These codes provide the identification that is typically used in flight plans. The Boeing 747 would use B741B742B743, etc., depending on the particular variant.

Regions and regional offices[edit]

ICAO World Headquarters,MontrealQuebecCanada
ICAO has a headquarters, seven regional offices, and one regional sub-office :[23]


List of Secretaries General[edit]

Dr. Fang Liu China2015–
Raymond Benjamin France2009–2015 [24]
Dr. Taïeb Chérif Algeria2003–2009
Renato Claudio Costa Pereira Brazil1997–2003
Philippe Rochat  Switzerland1991–1997
Shivinder Singh Sidhu India1988–1991
Yves Lambert France1976–1988
Dr. Assad Kotaite Lebanon1970–1976
Bernardus Tielman Twigt Netherlands1964–1970
Ronald MacAllister Macdonnell Canada1959–1964
Carl Ljungberg Sweden1952–1959
Albert Roper France1944–1951

List of Council Presidents[edit]

Dr. Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu Nigeria2013–present
Roberto Kobeh Gonzalez Mexico2006–2013
Dr. Assad Kotaite Lebanon1976–2006
Walter Binaghi Argentina1957–1976
Edward Pearson Warner United States1947–1957

ICAO and climate change[edit]

Further information: Environmental impact of aviation
Emissions from international aviation are specifically excluded from the targets agreed under the Kyoto Protocol. Instead, the Protocol invites developed countries to pursue the limitation or reduction of emissions through the International Civil Aviation Organization. ICAO's environmental committee continues to consider the potential for using market-based measures such as trading and charging, but this work is unlikely to lead to global action. It is currently developing guidance for states who wish to include aviation in an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to meet their Kyoto commitments, and for airlines who wish to participate voluntarily in a trading scheme.
Emissions from domestic aviation are included within the Kyoto targets agreed by countries. This has led to some national policies such as fuel and emission taxes for domestic air travel in the Netherlands and Norway, respectively. Although some countries tax the fuel used by domestic aviation, there is no duty on kerosene used on international flights.[25]
ICAO is currently opposed to the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). The EU, however, is pressing ahead with its plans to include aviation.
The final negotiations on a deal to cap greenhouse gas emissions from international jet flights begin in September 2016.[26]

Investigations of air disasters[edit]

Most air accident investigations are carried out by an agency of a country that is associated in some way with the accident. For example, the Air Accidents Investigation Branchconducts accident investigations on behalf of the British Government. ICAO has conducted three investigations involving air disasters, of which two were passenger airliners shot down while in international flight over hostile territory.
  1. Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 which was shot down on 21 February 1973 by Israeli F-4 jets over the Sinai Peninsula during a period of tension that led to the Arab-IsraeliYom Kippur War killing 108 people.
  2. Korean Air Lines Flight 007, which was shot down on 1 September 1983 by a Soviet Su-15 interceptor near Moneron Island just west of Sakhalin Island during a period of heightened Cold War tension killing all 269 people on board including U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald.[27]
  3. UTA Flight 772, which was destroyed by a bomb on 19 September 1989 above the Sahara Desert in Niger, en route from N'DjamenaChad, to Paris, France. The explosion caused the aircraft to break up, killing all 156 passengers and 15 crew members, including the wife of U.S. Ambassador Robert L. Pugh. Investigators determined that a bomb placed in the cargo hold by Chadian rebels backed by Libya was responsible for the explosion. A French court convicted in absentia six Libyans of planning and implementing the attack.[28]